An ANES study represents one or more interviews conducted with a sample
of U.S. eligible voters during one or more interview periods. Most often,
the sample is designed to be representative at the national level only, and is
not selected to represent states or smaller areas.
ANES studies fall into several general categories:
ANES studies are documented in this comprehensive table [.xlsx].
Time Series Studies
ANES Time Series studies have been conducted since 1948, typically through in-person interviewing, during years of
biennial national elections. Topics cover voting behavior and the elections, together with questions on public opinion and
attitudes of the electorate. In all Time Series studies, an interview is completed just after the election (the Post-election
or "Post" interview); during years of Presidential elections an interview is also completed just before the election
(the Pre-election or "Pre" interview).
ANES Pilot studies have tested content and methodology for forthcoming Time Series studies in interviews that are
usually administered by telephone. Pilots have been conducted 'between' most of the Time Series studies since 1979.
Most often, a selection of respondents from the latest completed Time Series Study is interviewed.
Special Studies and Derivative Files
Other ANES studies are conducted which are not Time Series nor Pilot. Some are panel studies designed to employ repeated interviewing of respondents over a time period of special interest in order to collect data that tracks changes in attitudes and opinions. Other types of special studies are unique in design, for example the ANES 1988 Super Tuesday Study which interviewed respondents in 16 states having primaries on Super Tuesday. Additionally, ANES derivative files are released which combine data from related studies, such as when one ANES study includes in its sample respondents from a previous or different ANES study.