ANES logo
                   Newsletter to the ANES User Community

Original Document Date:  April 6, 1994
Date of this Revision:   April 7, 1994
Filename:                \ftp\announce\newsltr\ltr40694.wp

Date:     April 6, 1994

To:       Social Scientists Who Use the National Election Studies

From:     David C. Leege, Chair, ANES Board of Overseers
          Charles H. Franklin, Chair, 1994 ANES Study Planning

Subject:  Designation of "Core" Questions to be Asked on the 1994
          ANES Post-Election Study 

In the weeks following the November 1994 general elections, the
American National Election Studies will conduct its 23rd biennial study of
the American electorate.  As in midterm Studies conducted since
1958, the 1994 ANES will employ a single, post-election survey to
interview face-to-face for 70-minutes 1750 citizens of voting
age.  Roughly one-third of those questioned will be respondents
first interviewed in the 1992 Election Study and interviewed
again in the 1993 ANES Pilot Study.  ANES will conduct the other
two-thirds of the interviews with a freshly drawn, cross-section
sample, randomly selected from a probability, multi-staged,
clustered sample of national households.

Planning for the 1994 Study has been underway for over a year,
beginning with the development and testing of new instrumentation
in the 1993 Pilot Study.  Both topical content and items were
suggested by the ANES user community.  The Board has reviewed
initial analyses of Pilot items, and a Planning Committee will
meet in April to draft the questionnaire that the ANES Board of
Overseers will review at its June 1994 meeting.  

At the heart of the 1994 Study will be a set of "core" questions
that ANES has asked in Election Studies conducted since 1952.  We
are writing to enlist your help in specifying exactly which core
questions should be retained in the 1994 instrument.  (By now,
this is a familiar exercise to many of you.)  The task of
specifying the proportion of each study that should be devoted to
extending time-series is always difficult.  As a first step, the
Board, at its March meeting, placed each item considered "core"
in one of four broad categories, reflecting the item's priority
for inclusion in the 1994 Study.  These categories are:

I.   UNANIMOUSLY SUPPORTED by the Board for inclusion in the 1994
     Post-Election Study.

II.  POSSIBLE (but not certain) inclusion.  Items in this
     category received majority (but not unanimous) Board
     support.  Some items were listed in this category because
     the Planning Committee anticipates modifications in wording.

     Persons who need these items, or need them in the exact
     original wording as asked in the past, should write to the

III. UNLIKELY to be included in the 1994 Study.  Questions in
     this category were supported by less than a majority of the
     Board and will probably be dropped from the Study, unless
     the Board receives strong support for an item from the
     scholarly community.  Persons who need these items should
     write to the Board.

IV.  OMITTED.  Questions in this category did not receive support
     for inclusion from any member of the Board.  The Board's
     recommendations concerning core questions are summarized in
     the enclosed document.  If you would like a copy of the
     full, unabridged core document that includes the precise
     wording of every question, please download a copy from the
     ANES anonymous FTP server. The filename is
     \ftp\studies\nes94\cor94com.wp.   If you cannot access the
     unabridged core document via FTP, please contact the ANES
     Project Staff (by phone, email, or U.S. Mail) and they will
     send you a copy.  (The phone numbers and addresses appear at
     the end of this memo.)

The Board invites you to review its recommendations and to submit
short memoranda to the Board recommending the retention of
specific questions if they are critical to your own research and
their continuation in 1994 may be in some jeopardy.  Given the
unavoidable competition between continuity and new question
content, the Board has asked that each such memorandum include
the explicit scientific or analytic justification for continuing
a given question.

One issue confronting the 1994 Planning Committee concerns the
wording and format of the House vote choice item.  There is
substantial evidence that the wording and format used since 1978
contributes to an overestimate of support for the incumbent.  On
the other hand, the pre-1978 wording gets the aggregate support
right but exaggerates the effect of partisanship.  The 1994
Planning Committee is considering what to do about this and would
welcome suggestions from the user community.  Currently, the
options appear to be 1) continue the post-1978 wording in 1994,
2) revert to the pre-1978 wording, 3) use a split-sample design
in 1994 to allow an explicit comparison of the two formats (but
at the cost of small samples on each form and possible damage to
the comparability of the panel component linking 1992-93-94). 
Other options may also arise.  To help the Planning Committee
obtain a sense of the opinions among the user community, a
special meeting has been arranged for the Midwest Political
Science Association meetings.  This meeting will take place on
Friday, April 15, from 4:00-5:30 in Clark 10 (one of the 7th
floor meeting rooms at the Palmer House).  All interested users
are invited to attend.  Members of the Planning Committee will
present the evidence and the options and open the floor for
discussion of the alternatives.

Beyond the continuation of core, the 1994 Study has several other
objectives related to the political circumstances of this
election.  From the perspective of coalition maintenance, 1994 is
likely to be a special political moment, one portentous for the
future electoral success not only of the Democratic and
Republican parties but of third party challenges as well. 
Accordingly, the 1994 ANES will assess how well Clinton has held
together or expanded his political coalition over his first two
years in office.  The 1994 survey will re-ask batteries of items
from the 1992 and 1993 Studies to provide an opportunity for
social scientists to identify forces that are driving
constituencies in and out of the Clinton and Perot coalitions. 

Due to a combination of redistricting, scandal, and retirement,
the 1992 House elections replaced more than one-quarter of the
House -- the most in nearly half a century.  This turnover
provides an opportunity to examine the ways in which newly
elected members build a relationship with their constituents
during the first term in office and secure their districts
against challenge in the next election.  Although we know that
incumbent advantage accrues quickly (it is well-established,
perhaps established in full, by completion of the first term in
office), is the incumbency advantage secured by the actions that
members of Congress engage in during their first term of office,
or is it secured because of their first re-election campaign? 
The 1992-93-94 panel data will provide sharp tests of these two
alternatives by permitting detailed analysis of the processes by
which newly-elected Representatives (compared to returning
incumbents) shore up their support during their first term in
office.  Panel data will provide a way to assess how citizens
learn and forget about candidates following an election, and how
constituents form impressions of new Representatives.  We
anticipate that the 1994 Study Planning Committee will also build
upon new questions on health care reform developed in the 1993
NES Pilot Study.  While space will be extremely scarce, there may
be some topics or instrument modifications that can be addressed
only in the context of an election, not an off-year Pilot Study. 
Members of the ANES user community may wish to alert the Board to
such opportunities.

Please send your memoranda to the National Election Studies,
Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, Room
4026, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248.  You can also reach the ANES by email 
at or by Fax at 734-764-3341.  Please respond
if you have any concerns over new content by April 20 in time for
the Planning Committee meeting.  If your concerns rest with the
core items, please respond by May 18 to ensure that the Board
will have an opportunity to review your recommendations at its
June 3 meeting.

We look forward to your suggestions and advice.


          I.  PARTISANSHIP  
RANKED I:      
     Party Likes/Dislikes; Party Identification;
     Party Differences; party more likely to raise

     Which party more conservative; Which party do better
     job on (Several issues).

     Recall of parents' partisanship 


     Thermometer ratings of President, congressional, Senate
     candidates, parties; Congressional candidate
     likes/dislikes; Presidential approval on handling job,
     economy, relations with foreign countries; approve of
     Congressional performance; approve of Representatives'
     handling of job; recall of congressional candidates
     candidate initiated contact with respondent; respondent
     initiated contact with representative

     Traits and affects evaluation for Bill Clinton;
     remember how Representative voted on particular bill;
     remember anything special Representative has done for
     this district; recall of Senate candidates

          III.  ISSUES  

A.  Placements:   

The CORE document does not address the question of which objects
are to be placed on which issues.  (Convey your sentiments to the

B.  Social Welfare 

     Job and good standard of living (7-pt scale), spending
     and services (7-pt. scale) 

     How R would change federal program spending; gov't
     vs. private health care plans (7pt-scale) 

C.  Attitudes toward Race and Racial Policy
     Government aid blacks (7-point scale); how much change
     in position of black people 

     Civil rights people push too fast; racial policy
     on school integration and fair employment; affirmative
     action on hiring and promotion, college admissions

D.  Economic Evaluations

RANKED I:        
     National retrospective economic evaluation; personal
     retrospective economic evaluation

     Family income kept pace with inflation; economic
     policies of federal government made R, and the nation,
     better or worse off; inflation, unemployment better or
     worse in the nation; prospective economic evaluation
     for individual, nation; limit imports from Japan?

     Condition of economy in this state

E.  Foreign Relations 

     U.S. position in world weaker/stronger; U.S. better off
     to stay home?

     War worries, conventional and nuclear; Republicans or
     Democrats better at keeping out of war; cooperate more
     or get tougher in dealing with Russia

F.  Social Issues

     When should abortion be legal 

     Women have equal role (7-pt scale); opinion on school
     prayer; favor/oppose death penalty 

G.  Miscellaneous Issues 

RANKED I:        
     What is most important problem facing country

     Follow-ons to most important problem; most important
     issue in House campaign; government too powerful;
     country on right/wrong track


RANKED I:        
     Liberal/Conservative views (7-pt scale); born-again
     Christian; religion important, provide guidance; how
     describe denomination; religious practices; Bible

     Equalitarianism battery; moral traditionalism battery;
     racial prejudice battery


     Efficacy (people like me have no say; government too
     complicated; public officials don't care) 

     Trust in government (waste money, are crooked, can be
     trusted to do right, government run by few big
     interests?); responsiveness (how much attention does
     government pay; do elections help responsiveness)

     If people don't care how election comes out, they
     shouldn't vote.


A.   Interest and Involvement in Public Affairs and Current

RANKED I:        
     Follow public affairs; interest in campaign; which
     party most members in House/Senate; job of several
     public figures; institutional political knowledge; care
     who wins

     Talk politics 

B.  Campaign Activities, Including Contributions  

RANKED I:        
     Campaign activities: talk to people, wear button,
     attend meetings, any other work? anyone from parties,
     anyone else, talk to R about supporting candidates?
     campaign contributions: to candidate, to party, to any
     other group?

     Use the income tax checkoff

     Been solicited for contributions in person, by mail,
     over the phone

C.   Voting Behavior 

RANKED I:        
     Turnout/registration mobilization; did R vote in '94,
     is R registered; for whom did R vote for President in
     '92; congressional vote choice, Senate vote choice

     Vote in person or by absentee; county and state of
     registration if different than sample

     Strength of preference for congressional/Senate vote

          VII.  MEDIA 

     Television: days last week watched TV news; attention
     to news about campaigns, watch any programs about
     campaign;  Newspaper: days last week read paper, read
     about campaigns, how much attn to articles re:
     campaign;  listen to speeches or discussions on radio;
     read about campaigns in any magazines 


v    Feeling thermometers for groups 

          IX.  PERSONAL DATA 

RANKED I:        
     Age, marital status, education ( R and Spouse), work
     status, occupation, (R and spouse), employed by
     government, worried about job; belong to labor union,
     subjective social class, church attendance,
     denominational affiliation, ethnicity, residence when
     growing up, mobility, any children, their ages.

     parents' occupation 

     Whether any children live with R at least half the time

                       ANES ON-LINE:  THE ANES FTP SERVER
                                April 6, 1994

The ANES FTP server ('File Transfer Protocol') is now on-line and
available for anonymous FTP.  The name for the server is
'' (the IP address is  The
server is an IBM-compatible 386 running the 'Serving-FTP'
software of LanWorkplace for DOS.  

We established the server to increase the amount of information
that the ANES Board of Overseers, the Principal Investigators, and
the ANES Project Staff can provide the ANES user community.  The
FTP server currently contains a wide range of resources including
an overview of each ANES data collection and study design; a list
of topics and questions covered over the four decades of Election
Studies; the updated Continuity Guide; details on sampling;
information on the ANES Pilot Studies; a bibliography of data use;
notices about upcoming studies, data releases and events; a
listing of the ANES Pilot Study and Technical Reports which can be
ordered in hardcopy format; the history and organization of ANES;
instructions on how to access ANES data and contact ANES Project
Staff and Board Members, and much, much more. (A full listing and
short description of all the files that currently reside on the
server appears below.)  Additional files will be available in the
near future.  Many of these documents were created in response to
suggestions that Official Representatives to the ICPSR made last
October in a panel discussion on the American National Election Studies. 
Please comment on the materials that currently reside on the
server and also advise us on what additional materials you would
like us to provide on-line.  Contact the ANES Project Staff by
email (, phone (734-764-5494), fax (734-764-3341)
or U.S. mail (NES; CPS/ISR; Room 4026; P.O. Box 1248; Ann Arbor,
MI  48106-1248).

Most files reside on the server in two formats:  WordPerfect and
ASCII.  The WordPerfect versions of files are formatted much more
extensively than the ASCII versions, and were created with a
printer definition for the HP Laserjet IIIsi.  The filenames for
the WordPerfect versions of the files end with the extension .wp
while the ASCII versions end with .txt.  When downloading the
WordPerfect versions, make sure to issue the command 'binary'
before the 'get' command.

How to Copy a File from our Computer to Yours
FTP allows a user to easily copy, via the Internet, files from
the ANES computer to your computer.  FTP has been widely available
at colleges and universities since the mid-1970's, though its use
has been growing more widespread recently.  FTP is quite simple
to use.  Basically, a user 1) connects to the ANES server by
identifying our computer's name or its IP address (again, the
name for the ANES server is ''); 2) changes
into the desired subdirectory; 3) issues a 'get' command to
retrieve a file; then 4) disconnects from the server and exits

The following commands show how a user would download a copy of
the file named '\datainfo\datalist.txt' which contains a listing
of all ANES data files:

  Command                       Purpose
  ftp                           [to start the FTP software]
  open    [to connect to the ANES FTP
  anonymous                     [to login to the server]
  cd datainfo                   [to change to the subdirectory
  get datalist.txt              [to retrieve the file named
  bye                           [to disconnect from the server
                                   and exit FTP]

Here are some additional commands that can be used as needed:

  Command                       Purpose
  dir                           [to get a listing of files
                                   available in the subdirectory]
  cd          [to change into a particular
                                subdirectory - e.g., 'cd
                                   announce' to change into the
                                   subdirectory named
  cd ..                         [to change back up one level of
  binary                        [to switch to binary mode for
                                downloading WordPerfect (.wp)
  ascii                         [to switch to ASCII mode for
                                downloading text files (.txt)
                                This is the  default mode.]
  help                          [to get a list of available
                                from the server]
  get  -              [to display the contents of a
                                   file on the screen rather than
                                 downloading the file.  Only do
                                   this with files ending with
                                   the extension .txt.  Note,
                                   this command may not
                                 work with some versions of ftp

We have reproduced below the contents of the file named index.wp,
which gives the path, filename and a short description for all
the files currently on the FTP server.  This file will change
over time as we add, delete and/or replace files on the server. A
file named 'changes.wp' on the server provides a
chronologically-based listing of these changes to the server.

Files Currently Available on the ANES FTP Server

Path & Filename                      Contents
 \ftp\index.wp                          This listing of all files
                                        & their contents
 \ftp\morehelp.wp                       How to get more help from
                                        the ANES Staff
 \ftp\changes.wp                        Changes to the FTP server
                                        - additions, deletions,
 \ftp\disclaim.wp                       Disclaimer, indemnifying
                                        ANES, NSF,CPS, ISR and UM
 \ftp\readme.wp                         Fileserver info;
 \ftp\announce\icore\icorenew.wp        ICORE newsletter
 \ftp\datainfo\datalist.wp              A listing of all ANES
 \ftp\datainfo\topics.wp                A guide to topics covered
                                        in the ANES data
 \ftp\datainfo\other\othrinfo.wp        The other major data
                                        collections (e.g., Senate
                                        Study, Super-Tuesday
 \ftp\datainfo\other\r&dinfo.wp         Research & development
                                        studies (i.e., the Pilot
 \ftp\datainfo\timeseri\tsinfo.wp       The 1952-1992 Time-Series
                                        data collections
 \ftp\datainfo\timeseri\dsignimp.wp     Time-Series study design
                                        & implementation
 \ftp\datainfo\timeseri\cumudata.wp     Information about the ANES
                                        Cumulative Datafile
 \ftp\datainfo\timeseri\dataqual.wp     Data quality control
 \ftp\howtoget\joinmail.wp              How to get on the ANES
                                        mailing list
 \ftp\howtoget\orderdat.wp              How to Get ANES Data and
 \ftp\howtoget\ordermtl.wp              How to get other ANES
                                        study materials and
 \ftp\overview\overview.wp              History of ANES; general
                                        info about the
 \ftp\overview\personnl.wp              List of ANES Staff &
                                        Board, with
                                        contact info
 \ftp\overview\resorgan.wp              Information about ANES the
 \ftp\overview\spproces.wp              The ANES study planning
 \ftp\resourcs\biblio\articles.wp       Journal articles in the
                                        ANES Bibliography of Data
 \ftp\resourcs\biblio\books92.wp        Books in the ANES
                                        Bibliography of Data Use
 \ftp\resourcs\biblio\papers.wp         Various papers in the ANES
                                        Bibliography of Data Use
 \ftp\resourcs\biblio\phd92.wp          Dissertations in the ANES
                                        Bibliography of Data Use
 \ftp\resourcs\psreport\pilotrpt.wp     List of ANES Pilot Study
 \ftp\resourcs\techrpts\techrpts.wp     List of ANES Technical
 \ftp\resourcs\conguide\readme.wp     Correct order to print
                                        files for the Continuity
 \ftp\resourcs\conguide\title.wp        Title page for the
                                        Continuity Guide
  \ftp\resourcs\conguide\intro.wp       Introduction for the
                                        Continuity Guide
  \ftp\resourcs\conguide\92cgch1.wp     Chapter one of the
  \ftp\resourcs\conguide\92cgch2a.wp    Chapter two, part A, of
                                        the Continuity Guide
  \ftp\resourcs\conguide\92cgch2b.wp    Chapter two, part B, of
                                        the Continuity Guide
  \ftp\resourcs\conguide\92cgch3a.wp    Chapter three, part A, of
                                        the Continuity Guide
  \ftp\resourcs\conguide\92cgch3b.wp    Chapter three, part B, of
                                        the Continuity Guide
  \ftp\resourcs\conguide\92cgch4.wp     Chapter four of the
                                        Continuity Guide
  \ftp\resourcs\conguide\92cgch5.wp     Chapter five of the
                                        Continuity Guide
  \ftp\resourcs\conguide\92cgch6.wp     Chapter six of the
                                        Continuity Guide
                         OTHER ANES ANNOUNCEMENTS
                               April 6, 1994
                    Receive Updates about ANES by E-Mail

Please send us your e-mail address (send to: so
we can keep you informed about future ANES activities including
planning for the 1994 Election Study, the 1995 Pilot Study,
Conferences to be held in 1994 and 1995, the release of new data
sets including the ANES CD-ROM, and more.  With over 2300 people
on the ANES mailing list, the costs of mailing information to the
user community has grown prohibitive.  Email is more efficient,
faster, less expensive, and environmentally friendly!  You will
usually receive updates on ANES activities approximately one week
earlier by e-mail vs. U.S. mail. 

                          Data Release Announcements
Cumulative File
The ANES Project Staff has nearly completed its update of the
Cumulative Data File (ICPSR #8475) to include variables and cases
from the 1992 ANES Pre-/Post-Election Study.  The Cumulative Data
File will consist of 723 variables derived from the series of
biennial SRC/CPS National Election Studies conducted since 1952. 
The addition of the 1992 data will bring to 21 the number of
Election Studies that have been pooled into this single file
which will contain a total of 37,456 cases.  Variables that
appear in this data set have been asked in three or more 
Election Studies.

We will turn over the updated Cumulative Data File to the Inter-
university Consortium for Political and Social Research in the 
very near future.  After the Consortium has completed its
verification and accessioning activities, it will announce the
availability of the dataset through its regular channels.   We
will announce the availability of the data set on the ANES FTP
server in the \ftp\announce subdirectory.

Technically, the Cumulative Data File will be "raw" data with SAS
and SPSS control cards.   The basic mode of documentation is
paper, although arrangements can be made with the Consortium to
receive a WordPerfect 5.1/5.2 version of the documentation to
facilitate printing additional copies of the documentation by
users.  One copy of the documentation will be sent with each
request; additional copies will be approximately $20.

Continuity Guide
The Continuity Guide to the American National Election Studies is
a topical index to all questions asked in ANES surveys.  It is
designed to assist users to determine whether and when a topic
has been addressed in a National Election Studies data
collection.  Every question in the ANES surveys is referenced,
although variations across time in question wording or in coding
schemes are not described.  For those variables included in the
NES Cumulative Data File, users can find a full description of
any changes in question wording that have occurred. 
The Guide describes the ANES biennial time-series studies, now
updated through 1992, omitting only the first election survey in
1948 and a short survey in 1954.  Also included in the Guide are
supplementary ANES data collections carried out 1980-1991:  the
1980 Major Panel, the 1984 Continuous Monitoring, the 1988 Study
of Presidential Nominations; the 1988 and 1990 Senate Election
Studies; and the 1990-1991 Political Consequences of War Panel. 
Appendices include brief descriptions of the Voter Validation
Studies, contextual data collections, the ANES Pilot Studies of
1979, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1989 and 1991, and various "nonresponse"

The Guide is now available on the ANES FTP server.  It is only
available as a WordPerfect document, and there are no hardcopies.
When we have added information about the 1992 Senate Election
Study and the 1993 Pilot Study to the document, it will be
available in ASCII format, and in hardcopy.  The hardcopy version
will cost approximately $20.  

Non-Response Datasets
Three separate files, which we describe as "non-response"
datasets will become available through the Consortium some time
in April.  The basis of each of these files is the total sample
on which interviews were attempted.  Thus, there are records for
all addresses in the sample, regardless of whether an interview
was conducted or not. 

The variables included in the data set are the reasons for non-
interview, the number of calls, the characteristics of the non-
interviewed household (insofar as this could be ascertained) and
information about the age, education, work experience and race of
the interviewers.  With special permission from the Board of
Overseers these non-response files can be linked to demographic
information from the U.S. Census about the sample census tracts. 

Because such information is often used to calculate the
difference between the interviewed individuals in the sample on
some characteristics and the non-interview cases in the sample on
the same characteristics, these files are sometimes referred to
as the "bias" files.  

The three datasets include the 1992 Non-Response file, with an N
of 3690;  a special file for the 1990-1991-1992 Full Panel file,
where the base N of 2785 includes the total sample file for the
beginning of the panel in 1990; and a replacement for the 1990
non-response file which was initially released as part 22 of 
ICPSR #9548, the 1990 National Election Study

The 1990 file includes "call records" and is an OSIRIS IV
hierarchical file.   The 1992 and the 1990-1991-1992 Full Panel
Non-Response Files are available as raw data files with SAS and
SPSS control cards. Documentation is paper only.

                                  ANES CD-ROM

The ANES Project Staff, in collaboration with the ICPSR, are in
the process of producing a CD-ROM that will contain all the data
and codebooks for all of the Time-Series Election Studies
conducted between 1948 and 1992 as well as the data and codebook
for the ANES Cumulative Data File.  Additional data collections
(such as the 1956-58-60 Panel Study; the 1972-74-76 Panel Study;
the 1988-90-92 Senate Election Study; the 1988 Super-Tuesday
Study; and the 1984 Continuous Monitoring Study) may also be
included on this CD-ROM.  We anticipate release of the CD in
early in 1995.  Stay tuned for details. 


Data sets affected:      1990-91 Panel/Pilot ("The Political
                         Consequences of War") [ICPSR #9673]
                         1992  ANES Enhanced with the 1990-91
                         Panel data  [ICPSR 6067]
                         1990-91-92 ANES Full Panel [ICPSR 6230]
Error:    The codebook entries for these files incorrectly list
          v2217 as  the feeling thermometer for R's
          Congressperson, v2218 as the thermometer for R's
          Senator #1 and v2219 as the thermometer for R's Senator
          #2.  The data are correct, but the correct descriptions
          are as follows:

v2217 - Feeling thermometer (from the 1991 Pilot) for R's Senator
          #1 Note: Pennsylvania cases, the name asked was Harris
v2218 - Feeling thermometer (from the 1991 Pilot) for R's Senator
v2219 - Feeling thermometer (from the 1991 Pilot) for R's
Also,   the  probes  associated  with  these  feeling thermometer
  variables should be:

v2262 - Probe for v2217 R's Senator #1
v2263 - Probe for v2218 R's Senator #2
v2264 - Probe for v2219 R's Congressperson

Note that even though the variable descriptions in the codebooks
are incorrect, the 24-character variable names for these
variables are correct.  Also note that the variable descriptor
lists at the front of the ICPSR release codebooks describe these
variables incorrectly. The correct location to find the list of
names of Senators and Representatives for use with the variables
above is not Appendix A, as listed in the variable descriptions,
but is instead Appendix B in the 1990-91 Panel/Pilot data set
[ICPSR #9673] and is Note 16 in the 1992 ANES Enhanced data set
[ICPSR #6067].  Finally, the descriptions of three other
variables, v2317 - Approval/disapproval of the way R's
representative has  been handling the job, v2321 
- Approval/disapproval of the way R's Senator #1 has been
handling the job, and v2325 - Approval/disapproval of the way R's
senator #2 has been handling the job should also refer to either
Appendix B [ICPSR #9673] or Note 16 [ICPSR #6067].