ANES logo


The 1994 ANES Post-Election Study (ICPSR #6507) will become
available through the Inter-university Consortium for Political
and Social Research in mid to late-April. The 1994 Election Study
is the 23rd in the series of studies of American national
elections produced and disseminated by the Survey Research Center
and the Center for Political Studies at the University of
Michigan.  Since 1977, the National Election Studies have been
funded by the National Science Foundation.

Study Design and Content

Like its predecessors, the 1994 study design involved
face-to-face, paper and pencil interviews of respondents randomly
selected from the SRC's national area probability sample.  The
field period was November 8, 1994 through January 9, 1995, with
40% of the 1795 interviews taken in the first week, and 68% of
the interviews taken within three weeks of the election.  The
overall response rate was 74.1%.

The 1994 Election Study is in part a panel. Of the 1795
respondents, 759 were initially interviewed in the 1992 Pre-/Post
Election Study.  635 of the panel respondents were also
interviewed (by telephone) in the 1993 Pilot Study.  For the
panel respondents, the 1994 datafile also contains data from the
1992 and 1993 Studies.  Thus "lagged" measures are available for
use in analysis with panel respondents.  

The three-wave study was designed to exploit the special features
of the 1992-1994 elections: a minority president struggling to
forge a majority coalition in the face of a strong third-party
challenge, and the replacement in 1992 of fully one-quarter of
the House of Representatives.  Coming at the end of this period,
the 1994 Election Study is particularly well suited for
understanding how electoral coalitions form and decay, and how
new members of the House secured -- or did not secure -- their
districts.  These design themes became particularly salient and
important because of the electoral earthquake of the November 8,
1994 election, when control of the Congress shifted from Democrat
to Republican for the first time since 1952.  

The congressional battery that has been in place in ANES studies
since 1978 was the chief vehicle used to evaluate respondents'
attitudes towards Congress and their congressional
representatives.  These questions ask respondents:
    *  what they like and dislike about congressional candidates
    *  whether and how they have been contacted by the
    *  for summary evaluations ("feeling thermometers") of the
    *  whether they can recall congressional candidates
    *  whether they have had contact with the incumbent
    *  where they place congressional candidates on several
       issue dimensions
    *  for their evaluations of congressional performance.

The core battery of congressional evaluations was supplemented by
questions on term limits, on the representative's vote on
President Clinton's crime bill, and on whether the respondent
felt that his or her representative cared more about prestige and
influence for himself rather than solving the problems of the
congressional district. 

Emphasis on the panel aspects of the design should not obscure
the fact that the 1994 data can be used to support
cross-sectional analyses of the 1994 electorate.  1036 of the
cases are "fresh" cross-section, and that sample was drawn so
that it can be used together with the panel cases.  The full set
of 1795 cases, with appropriate weights, is a representative
sample of the U.S. electorate.  Additional substantive themes
covered in the data collection include:

* Campaign interest
* Media exposure
* Presidential performance evaluation; traits and affects for
  President Clinton
* Measures of partisanship (party likes/dislikes and party
  identification), which party would
  better handle certain public problems
* Summary evaluations (feeling thermometers) on major political
  figures and social groups
* Voting behavior (including recall of 1992 Presidential vote)
* Views on issues:  most important problem and several issue
  dimensions, including defense spending, assistance to blacks,
  spending and services trade-off, health insurance, women’s      
  role, and recent proposals to reform welfare
* Preferences on federal budget allocations
* Electoral participation
* Retrospective and prospective national and personal economic
* Liberal-conservative self-placement
* Political information held by respondents
* Values, including moral traditionalism, egalitarianism, and
  attitudes toward race, as well as individual items on school
  prayer and abortion
* Religious affiliation and behavior
* Occupation, work force status, home ownership and residential
  mobility, nationality, education, income, and number of         
  children being raised. 

The 1994 Election Study Data Release

Users will want to note the following characteristics of the 1994
     *  This will be the only release of the 1994 Election Study.
        The ICPSR and ANES have collaborated on processing,        
        cleaning and documenting these data.  There is no study   
        staff release as such. Users who are not at ICPSR-member  
        institutions may secure a  copy of the 1994 Election      
        Study by purchasing the ANES/ICPSR  CD-ROM (see below).
     *  Processing to ICPSR Class I standards has been carried
        out:  the dataset is fully "cleaned" and the usual set of
        derived measures have been created.  Sampling, field and  
        interviewer characteristic variables have been merged in. 
     *  All the variables from 1992 and 1993 have been  merged in
        for  the 1994 Panel respondents (1994 cross-section       
        respondents data have been padded with missing data).
     *  The dataset contains 2204 variables and 1795 cases.
     *  Documentation is currently machine readable only.  The
        documentation is in ASCII format.
     *  The dataset is available in ASCII "raw" format and is
        accompanied by SAS and SPSS control cards.  
     *  The ICPSR will disseminate the 1994 National Election
        Study via FTP, on computer diskettes, magnetic tape and   
        on the ANES/ICPSR CD-ROM.


The ANES CD-ROM will be available in mid-May.  Produced as a
cooperative venture between ANES and the ICPSR, the CD will
*  All 22 time-series National Election Studies, conducted in
   1948, 1952, 1956, and biennially from 1958 to 1994.  (This
   includes the newly released 1994 National Election Study.)
*  Three panel studies:  The 1956-1958-1960 Panel, The
   1972-1974-1976 Panel, and The 1980 Major Panel - The           
   Continuous Monitoring (or "Rolling Cross-Section") Study, 1984
*  The Presidential Nomination Process (or "Super Tuesday")
   Study, 1988 - The Pooled Senate  Election Study,               
*  The Cumulative Data File, 1952-1992, which merges into a
   single file variables included three times or more in the
   biennial time-series studies 
*  Machine readable codebooks for each data file, with
*  SAS and SPSS data definition statements for each data file
*  The ANES Bibliography of Data Use 
*  The Continuity Guide to questions asked over the years 
*  A history of ANES, description of the ANES research organization
   and study planning process, and a list of technical pilot      
   study reports.

In addition, the CD includes special front-end software for use
with the Cumulative Data File, the 1992 Election Study, and the
1980 Major Panel File.  This software will allow the analyst to
browse the codebook, extract subsets of variables and/or cases
for analysis, and generate raw or dBASE-compatible subset files
replete with customized documentation and corresponding SAS or
SPSS data definition statements.  An instruction manual for the
browsing and extraction software will accompany the disk.

Most individuals will use this CD on a desktop personal computer
or through means of a file-server to which their personal
computer is connected.  The CD can be used with both
IBM-compatible personal computers and with Macintosh computers
running PC Exchange, Apple File Exchanger, or Version 7.5 of the
Apple Finder.

In mid-May, the ICPSR will make available several copies of the
NES CD-ROM to each of the Official Representatives at its over
300 member institutions.  In May you will also receive a brochure
with more information about the CD including an order form which
you can use to acquire a personal copy of the CD-ROM.  Faculty,
staff and students at ICPSR member institutions can purchase the
CD for the discounted price of $30 (including shipping and
handling).  All other members of the ANES user community may
purchase the CD-ROM for $65 (including shipping and handling; add
$5 for overseas shipping and handling). 

For updates about the availability of the ANES CD-ROM, check the
'Announcements' section on the ANES WWW home page: or email us at

Changes on the Board

R. Douglas Rivers, of Stanford University, completed his term of
service on the ANES Board of Overseers.  Doug served the user
community with diligence over the past eight years.   

We are pleased to announce that Gary Cox, of the University of
California, San Diego, and W. Phillips Shively, of the University
of Minnesota, have agreed to serve on the ANES Board.  We look
forward to their counsel.

Behavior Reporting Experiment

NES collaborated with the Survey Methods Program of ISR's Survey
Research Center to design and implement a small telephone
experiment, conducted in November and December of 1994, to test a
method to reduce over-reporting of voting and of church
attendance.  700 respondents in two Michigan communities were
administered a brief, 10-minute questionnaire which replicated,
insofar as possible, the standard ANES questions leading up to the
turnout question.  The sample was drawn from voter registration
lists, with telephone number obtained by a telephone matching

There were four forms of the interview.  All questions were
identical except for the church attendance and the turnout
questions.  The experimental versions of the questions
we redesigned to reduce "source confusion" by asking respondents
to think very concretely about the circumstances surrounding
their behavior.

Form 1 respondents received the standard ANES version of the vote
question and the standard Gallup version of the church attendance
question.  Form 2 respondents were asked the standard ANES turnout
and the experimental church attendance questions; Form 3
respondents were administered the experimental turnout question
and the standard church attendance question, while Form 4
respondents got both experimental versions of the questions.

The actual turnout of each respondent was looked up on the
official city registration and voting records, and is on the data
file.  At a later point, the ANES project staff will assess
turnout rates for a randomly selected subset of non-respondents
to the study.

The dataset has 700 cases and 73 variables.  The data and
documentation are available as ASCII files.  The data and
documentation, as well as SAS control cards, will be available on
the ANES FTP server beginning April 19th. 

The 1995 ANES Pilot Study

Planning for the 1995 ANES Pilot Study is well underway.  The
Study will be conducted by computer assisted telephone
interviewing (CATI) during September and will consist of
40-minute interviews with approximately 500 respondents drawn
from the cross-section sample to the 1994 ANES Post-Election

The Study will pilot new instrumentation on the environment and
environmental politics, media exposure (including 'new media'),
issues, candidate evaluation, and new questions that will be
included as part of the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems.

Data from the 1994 ANES Post-Election Study will be merged to the
1995 Pilot data, forming a panel dataset.  We expect the data to
be available in the late fall of 1995.  Check the 'Announcements'
section on the ANES World Wide Web home page
for updates as we get closer.

Members of the Pilot Study Planning Committee include: Larry
Bartels (Chair), Ann Crigler, Charles Franklin, John Mark Hansen,
Donald Kinder, George Marcus, Warren Miller, George Rabinowitz,
Wendy Rahn, Steven Rosenstone and John Zaller.

The ANES Electronic Resources

ANES World Wide Web:
             ANES email: