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Legacy of Innovators

Converse, Campbell and Miller
Philip Converse, Warren Miller, and Angus Campbell, Designing the Michigan Election Studies.
Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan, Photo #bl005607

"In 1948, under the direction of Angus Campbell and Robert Kahn, the Survey Research Center (SRC) at the University of Michigan, with financial support from the Social Science Research Council (SSRC), carried out what it viewed as a pilot study of the national electorate. As Campbell and Kahn noted in their 1952 summary of that study, Lazarsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet (1944) showed the power of the systematic survey for understanding political behavior with their study of Erie County, Ohio, carried out around the 1940 election. The 1948 study was the national, scientific application of the method. This study interviewed 577 respondents twice, once before and then, again, after the election. The respondents were drawn using probability sampling..."

From "The Michigan, then National, then American National Election Studies," by Nancy Burns (2006).