The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Strength of Partisanship 1952-2012
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Independent'


  % OF GROUP: '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Males 9 10 12 10 11 11 9 13 11 14 16 17 17 17 17 14 13 14 13 10 13 12 10 11 14 8 10 13 14
Females 9 12 14 12 13 13 9 14 13 14 14 18 14 15 14 12 13 14 12 14 12 11 10 13 13 9 10 10 14
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Whites non-Hispanic 8 ** 12 10 11 11 9 13 13 14 14 18 16 17 15 13 12 14 13 12 12 12 10 13 14 9 9 11 14
Black non-Hispanic 21 ** 25 21 30 21 10 17 6 11 14 16 9 11 10 6 13 9 8 9 16 7 12 9 11 7 11 8 8
Hispanic ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 15 6 21 24 14 11 22 22 18 22 18 15 12 14 16 9 12 14 9 12 14 20
Race oth/mult non-Hisp ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 0 25 38 16 29 29 24 28 36 27 20 7 10 7 23 12 7 9 6 15 13 21
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 13 16 17 14 14 14 9 16 11 16 15 17 15 15 17 11 22 12 19 18 14 18 15 11 13 14 25 11 26
High School Diploma 7 8 13 11 12 12 9 14 13 15 16 19 18 20 19 15 14 18 15 15 15 15 13 16 18 11 13 15 18
Some College, no Degree 4 8 6 4 11 6 9 11 12 11 13 20 14 13 10 12 9 11 9 10 13 7 7 10 11 7 9 13 13
College Degree/ Post-grad 3 6 6 8 10 10 6 6 8 6 9 11 11 10 8 10 9 7 7 4 8 8 6 8 8 6 4 5 10
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Income 0-16 Percentile 15 17 20 19 16 13 12 15 11 17 13 20 15 18 15 16 18 16 15 17 18 15 11 18 16 ** 17 17 19
Income 17-33 Percentile 10 16 13 12 13 10 9 18 16 14 17 19 12 17 12 10 14 14 12 14 13 10 9 10 15 ** 10 11 16
Income 34-67 Percentile 7 9 12 9 12 13 8 11 12 13 17 19 16 17 18 12 12 13 12 12 12 11 13 14 14 ** 8 12 13
Income 68-95 Percentile 5 8 11 9 12 9 7 12 11 12 11 15 18 14 11 12 9 12 10 8 9 9 7 11 10 ** 7 9 12
Income 96-100 Percentile 13 5 4 5 8 11 9 11 8 9 13 5 9 8 14 5 9 8 4 1 10 8 4 8 10 ** 3 5 5
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Professionals 7 ** 9 10 12 ** 8 ** 12 10 11 12 14 12 11 12 9 10 9 8 10 9 8 10 10 ** 5 ** **
White Collar 8 ** 14 7 8 ** 6 ** 11 16 13 18 14 15 13 14 11 15 10 9 12 8 9 14 13 ** 10 ** **
Blue Collar 7 ** 12 11 13 ** 10 ** 11 15 17 18 17 20 18 15 15 16 15 13 15 13 12 14 15 ** 13 ** **
Unskilled 20 ** 14 9 11 ** 8 ** 7 0 18 16 18 29 23 11 14 11 19 14 18 23 21 8 25 ** 25 ** **
Farmers 6 ** 11 14 17 ** 8 ** 13 6 13 4 15 9 16 14 23 16 12 16 12 16 12 20 8 ** 7 ** **
Housewives 8 ** 14 14 13 ** 10 ** 12 14 15 21 16 15 17 10 13 15 13 16 11 16 14 13 14 ** 7 ** **
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Union Households 6 9 12 9 13 ** 6 12 11 14 17 19 17 16 18 13 12 13 12 7 10 8 7 13 10 7 11 8 14
Non-Union Households 10 12 13 12 12 ** 9 14 12 13 14 17 15 16 14 13 13 14 12 13 13 12 11 12 14 9 10 12 14
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
South 11 ** 13 15 17 17 11 15 13 16 16 21 15 17 15 11 17 13 12 17 16 10 11 12 16 9 9 13 13
Nonsouth 8 ** 12 10 11 10 8 13 12 13 14 16 15 16 15 14 11 14 12 10 11 12 10 12 12 8 11 10 15
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 24
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 31 21 8 17 22 9 9 14 14
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 38 24 20 17 21 16 17 17 13 12 14 14 11 10 12 16
Born 1943-1958 ** ** ** ** ** ** 12 16 20 20 20 24 20 20 20 16 15 15 14 11 12 11 10 11 12 8 10 10 13
Born 1927-1942 10 16 15 14 16 12 10 13 12 13 16 16 17 13 11 11 8 11 8 10 12 8 8 9 10 5 10 8 10
Born 1911-1926 8 11 13 11 11 14 9 13 11 13 10 15 11 12 10 8 10 7 9 7 8 10 6 11 5 6 10 7 7
Born 1895-1910 9 9 13 10 12 9 8 13 10 12 11 11 11 12 10 10 10 8 12 5 10 19 3 7 19 60 ** ** **
Born before 1895 10 12 11 8 10 9 5 13 8 9 7 9 6 8 17 14 0 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Liberals ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 10 15 10 13 9 8 7 7 8 5 9 5 5 6 7 5 3 5 6
Moderates ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 13 17 19 16 14 11 14 15 14 10 15 12 12 16 14 8 11 20 25
Conservatives ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 10 14 9 11 10 9 7 10 7 7 8 8 5 5 8 3 5 6 7

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 2A.3.1
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 26OCT15)