The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Strength of Partisanship 1952-2012
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Leaning Independent'


  % OF GROUP: '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Males 19 15 18 15 18 15 17 17 21 21 24 26 26 27 24 22 27 25 30 27 27 27 27 26 29 28 33 32 27
Females 15 14 12 10 9 12 13 15 17 16 19 19 18 21 20 17 20 18 22 22 26 23 25 22 28 28 26 26 21
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Whites non-Hispanic 17 ** 15 12 13 14 15 16 20 19 23 22 22 25 23 20 24 23 26 24 28 25 26 27 28 29 30 30 26
Black non-Hispanic 14 ** 6 11 11 6 9 13 7 8 11 15 16 18 13 14 19 15 23 23 15 27 23 14 18 18 26 18 15
Hispanic ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 23 19 14 7 19 29 18 11 18 22 12 24 25 25 22 27 19 35 31 27 25 16
Race oth/mult non-Hisp ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 50 25 0 26 21 29 32 28 9 11 23 21 40 34 15 30 21 39 31 31 46 27
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 13 9 10 10 9 9 9 10 7 12 11 14 11 13 12 13 11 10 16 15 18 16 16 19 21 24 17 17 19
High School Diploma 18 16 16 13 15 15 16 17 17 18 22 22 21 21 20 16 24 19 26 24 27 25 26 23 28 28 30 30 20
Some College, no Degree 19 21 21 16 9 16 21 21 32 25 26 26 30 30 30 22 25 23 24 27 29 25 26 26 29 28 31 32 27
College Degree/ Post-grad 34 24 16 11 18 15 17 21 29 26 30 24 27 35 24 25 25 29 30 28 27 25 25 26 28 27 27 25 27
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Income 0-16 Percentile 11 9 8 6 2 9 10 12 9 12 18 21 16 18 20 15 26 18 22 21 23 27 26 22 26 ** 28 31 19
Income 17-33 Percentile 15 13 10 14 11 12 11 15 16 16 19 17 17 20 21 18 19 17 23 21 26 23 27 18 29 ** 28 33 25
Income 34-67 Percentile 16 15 19 13 14 15 14 15 20 20 21 22 25 25 23 19 25 22 25 26 26 23 23 27 28 ** 32 29 24
Income 68-95 Percentile 20 16 17 14 18 16 20 20 24 21 26 25 24 30 23 22 26 25 29 27 30 29 28 27 29 ** 27 27 26
Income 96-100 Percentile 23 23 18 11 18 6 19 23 24 17 20 30 25 32 29 22 25 26 23 25 28 31 31 17 26 ** 33 19 32
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Professionals 20 ** 20 13 17 ** 19 ** 24 26 25 24 27 31 26 22 22 26 26 26 28 28 26 23 31 ** 33 ** **
White Collar 18 ** 13 15 13 ** 16 ** 23 19 24 24 26 28 22 24 27 19 27 26 29 24 23 24 28 ** 24 ** **
Blue Collar 18 ** 18 14 15 ** 16 ** 18 16 21 24 19 20 19 16 23 20 25 24 24 27 26 26 27 ** 32 ** **
Unskilled 12 ** 9 5 24 ** 6 ** 19 21 30 19 28 22 33 21 25 25 24 26 27 16 30 20 32 ** 25 ** **
Farmers 13 ** 11 7 8 ** 5 ** 7 15 8 15 8 16 16 5 20 18 21 16 28 10 19 20 40 ** 21 ** **
Housewives 17 ** 12 10 9 ** 14 ** 15 17 18 14 17 20 18 14 17 19 23 21 24 21 25 20 29 ** 21 ** **
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Union Households 18 14 17 14 16 ** 16 14 19 17 23 23 24 22 22 20 25 22 26 24 28 26 35 25 27 32 26 29 22
Non-Union Households 16 15 14 12 12 ** 15 17 18 19 21 21 21 25 22 19 23 21 25 25 26 25 24 24 29 27 30 29 24
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
South 10 ** 9 8 6 10 10 16 19 18 18 16 17 21 18 18 21 20 26 24 24 25 27 21 26 28 24 27 25
Nonsouth 19 ** 17 14 15 15 16 16 18 18 23 24 23 25 23 20 24 22 25 25 28 25 25 26 29 28 31 30 24
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 22
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 31 21 43 22 34 36 40 38 24
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 23 27 21 30 21 30 30 31 27 29 26 32 26 28 26 23
Born 1943-1958 ** ** ** ** ** ** 20 24 37 25 32 26 28 29 24 23 25 26 27 24 27 27 24 28 26 28 27 27 25
Born 1927-1942 18 23 24 15 14 22 20 21 21 24 23 24 22 25 24 19 24 19 24 25 25 26 20 21 22 24 23 23 23
Born 1911-1926 19 16 15 13 16 11 15 14 17 14 16 20 18 20 19 16 19 15 18 16 21 15 20 16 23 23 20 22 20
Born 1895-1910 17 14 11 11 12 9 10 13 11 14 13 17 14 13 13 5 14 13 13 10 16 24 22 0 16 8 ** ** **
Born before 1895 13 8 9 8 4 8 8 7 7 5 10 5 9 0 17 0 0 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Liberals ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 30 23 27 33 28 25 27 25 28 30 28 25 24 29 31 32 35 30 21
Moderates ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 22 26 24 26 24 25 24 23 29 27 27 29 30 29 36 36 37 34 25
Conservatives ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 22 20 24 23 24 20 24 22 25 24 27 23 23 20 26 23 22 23 24

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 2A.3.2
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 26OCT15)