The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Liberal-Conservative Self-Identification 1972-2012
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Moderate'


  % OF GROUP: '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Males 28 26 23 26 18 24 23 24 21 23 23 24 23 28 25 25 27 24 29
Females 26 27 27 28 21 21 24 31 23 26 23 28 25 29 22 20 24 20 34
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Whites non-Hispanic 28 28 26 27 21 23 24 29 23 25 23 25 24 30 23 24 24 21 30
Black non-Hispanic 18 14 18 20 14 18 21 23 19 22 22 30 20 25 20 14 32 22 37
Hispanic 15 0 14 26 14 23 19 25 22 30 22 30 26 24 18 18 25 27 36
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 20 43 40 48 19 18 20 23 14 13 21 26 30 18 30 18 25 24 37
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 23 19 13 19 13 12 13 18 15 18 11 18 23 19 18 14 8 18 40
High School Diploma 30 30 27 29 21 23 25 29 22 27 25 28 27 31 19 23 28 23 38
Some College, no Degree 28 27 34 29 20 29 26 30 25 24 26 29 22 32 26 23 29 25 32
College Degree/ Post-grad 18 24 23 23 19 18 20 27 22 20 20 18 20 22 26 20 20 18 22
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Income 0-16 Percentile 21 25 14 21 17 16 18 24 15 20 24 28 20 23 22 ** 24 19 35
Income 17-33 Percentile 26 25 19 24 20 21 25 28 24 23 20 30 26 28 20 ** 29 26 37
Income 34-67 Percentile 27 28 29 29 22 26 24 32 24 26 25 25 28 32 18 ** 27 24 32
Income 68-95 Percentile 32 26 33 31 18 27 25 27 24 27 24 25 23 32 31 ** 25 21 27
Income 96-100 Percentile 28 18 25 24 21 15 23 24 19 22 23 16 23 15 29 ** 21 12 26
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Professionals 23 31 26 25 20 24 23 27 23 25 24 23 20 28 26 ** 22 ** **
White Collar 33 26 32 30 24 28 25 32 23 27 26 27 26 29 21 ** 26 ** **
Blue Collar 28 24 24 27 18 22 22 27 21 24 21 27 26 31 24 ** 28 ** **
Unskilled 17 22 25 24 17 15 27 27 19 28 26 18 22 27 22 ** 25 ** **
Farmers 23 31 13 23 19 12 18 19 19 24 23 11 18 0 13 ** 33 ** **
Housewives 26 27 25 28 19 18 24 28 23 21 25 31 29 31 12 ** 20 ** **
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Union Households 30 28 32 30 19 24 25 31 27 29 23 35 27 39 24 29 29 21 31
Non-Union Households 26 26 23 26 20 22 23 27 21 24 23 24 23 27 23 21 24 22 32
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
South 23 24 18 25 20 18 20 27 19 20 20 23 21 25 23 21 24 22 32
Nonsouth 28 27 28 27 19 24 25 28 23 26 24 28 26 30 23 23 26 21 31
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 36
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 8 26 29 24 23 19 27 23 32
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** 24 19 26 22 28 21 25 24 24 24 30 23 22 30 21 32
Born 1943-1958 27 26 30 27 19 22 24 30 21 22 20 25 24 28 23 21 19 24 31
Born 1927-1942 29 23 26 28 18 23 24 22 25 26 24 28 18 29 21 27 24 20 29
Born 1911-1926 27 32 24 25 23 22 25 31 21 26 28 30 29 31 23 24 24 16 27
Born 1895-1910 24 26 17 28 19 19 18 21 21 30 21 27 33 22 55 10 ** ** **
Born before 1895 20 17 5 29 0 14 0 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Democrats (incl leaners) 28 27 25 29 22 25 25 29 23 25 23 30 27 31 24 25 29 22 33
Independents 25 26 32 27 19 19 27 30 26 20 27 27 29 37 22 23 28 38 58
Republicans (incl leaners) 26 26 23 24 17 19 20 25 19 25 22 21 19 23 22 19 19 16 21

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 3.1.2
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 26OCT15)