The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Aid to Blacks/Minorities 1970-2012
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Govt. Help (1,2,3)'


  % OF GROUP: '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Males 27 31 26 29 23 19 20 28 21 22 22 19 18 15 24 16 ** 21 17 15
Females 27 30 29 29 27 19 22 27 23 25 25 22 21 19 26 18 ** 21 19 15
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Whites non-Hispanic 21 26 23 25 20 15 18 24 18 16 18 16 15 13 21 15 ** 16 13 10
Black non-Hispanic 79 71 69 60 54 41 47 49 40 45 49 38 39 35 44 29 ** 43 44 37
Hispanic 57 30 24 51 53 35 33 40 28 46 32 30 26 25 35 22 ** 24 23 22
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 13 44 43 57 38 24 18 32 25 48 22 19 23 11 19 14 ** 25 26 17
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 26 24 21 24 26 16 17 29 18 26 24 18 18 20 37 20 ** 26 23 25
High School Diploma 24 27 24 25 23 15 18 23 19 23 20 19 17 14 20 16 ** 19 17 15
Some College, no Degree 32 37 34 33 25 21 20 29 24 20 25 17 19 17 26 16 ** 19 18 13
College Degree/ Post-grad 37 43 41 41 29 29 34 39 31 28 32 29 27 23 30 21 ** 26 20 16
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Income 0-16 Percentile 31 33 33 36 36 24 23 34 24 35 29 27 28 25 29 20 ** 28 25 21
Income 17-33 Percentile 29 30 33 31 27 15 22 29 21 23 27 20 22 15 29 23 ** 19 24 16
Income 34-67 Percentile 26 28 27 28 25 18 22 27 21 23 24 19 15 15 24 16 ** 24 13 14
Income 68-95 Percentile 26 30 26 26 18 20 22 26 21 19 20 18 17 15 20 15 ** 17 15 11
Income 96-100 Percentile 29 32 15 26 18 13 20 30 21 15 20 22 27 21 29 10 ** 14 13 15
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Professionals 29 35 37 32 23 22 25 34 28 22 26 23 21 19 30 16 ** 26 ** **
White Collar 29 33 24 34 25 21 20 27 21 24 22 20 18 13 20 17 ** 15 ** **
Blue Collar 28 32 26 28 25 17 19 26 19 23 25 17 18 16 20 17 ** 22 ** **
Unskilled 42 46 38 25 37 26 21 21 15 29 23 26 13 30 31 9 ** 30 ** **
Farmers 29 23 17 28 23 7 19 23 20 28 17 19 13 6 4 30 ** 23 ** **
Housewives 22 21 20 19 22 13 18 20 21 19 18 20 15 20 22 20 ** 10 ** **
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Union Households 27 29 28 27 24 18 23 29 19 21 20 18 21 20 29 18 ** 23 19 17
Non-Union Households 27 30 28 30 25 19 21 27 23 24 24 21 19 16 24 17 ** 21 18 14
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
South 22 28 23 26 23 17 20 26 19 23 25 21 20 16 26 16 ** 23 14 16
Nonsouth 29 31 29 30 25 20 22 28 24 24 23 20 19 17 25 18 ** 20 21 15
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 19
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 46 21 21 31 23 ** 29 23 17
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** 34 26 25 34 26 26 26 23 22 19 25 18 ** 18 16 14
Born 1943-1958 33 41 38 37 27 20 27 30 24 24 24 21 19 14 25 16 ** 19 17 14
Born 1927-1942 29 28 22 29 19 19 20 26 22 21 22 19 18 18 19 9 ** 22 15 14
Born 1911-1926 27 25 23 23 25 13 15 25 17 22 21 17 13 11 25 23 ** 18 22 9
Born 1895-1910 23 25 20 19 24 20 14 20 13 22 13 16 7 16 34 26 ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 15 23 27 24 36 10 14 0 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Democrats (incl leaners) 34 36 35 34 31 26 26 36 29 32 30 27 29 24 34 23 ** 33 28 25
Independents 22 26 24 22 23 14 15 27 17 18 19 19 12 18 19 15 ** 19 12 11
Republicans (incl leaners) 19 23 17 24 15 10 14 18 15 15 16 12 10 7 14 9 ** 8 7 5
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Liberals ** 61 53 52 41 39 45 47 40 39 42 37 45 36 44 27 ** 39 35 29
Moderates ** 29 30 30 21 12 19 24 20 25 21 20 17 12 24 16 ** 20 13 13
Conservatives ** 20 14 20 16 14 16 22 16 15 16 14 13 10 17 8 ** 12 10 6

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 4B.4.1
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 26OCT15)