The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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People Don't Have a Say in What the Government Does 1988-2012
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Neither (1988-later only)'


  % OF GROUP: '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Males 8 12 7 9 9 11 9 11 13 9 18
Females 9 11 5 10 9 13 10 16 10 11 16
  '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Whites non-Hispanic 8 11 5 9 9 12 9 14 11 9 15
Black non-Hispanic 7 6 7 9 10 8 11 4 16 13 21
Hispanic 14 21 13 16 12 19 11 16 14 15 21
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 12 10 8 9 8 9 7 15 7 10 15
  '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 11 9 8 5 5 11 10 7 21 8 11
High School Diploma 9 13 8 10 12 14 12 15 15 12 19
Some College, no Degree 9 12 5 11 8 11 9 14 8 12 16
College Degree/ Post-grad 5 8 3 7 7 10 5 12 10 6 15
  '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Income 0-16 Percentile 14 10 8 9 9 11 15 ** 15 11 22
Income 17-33 Percentile 6 11 7 10 13 8 13 ** 13 16 16
Income 34-67 Percentile 9 12 6 9 9 14 7 ** 11 12 15
Income 68-95 Percentile 5 13 5 11 8 12 7 ** 9 4 16
Income 96-100 Percentile 2 8 1 7 4 8 9 ** 8 2 15
  '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Professionals 6 10 4 9 7 10 7 ** 8 ** **
White Collar 8 13 5 8 10 13 7 ** 8 ** **
Blue Collar 10 11 7 9 11 12 11 ** 18 ** **
Unskilled 10 12 4 23 2 10 6 ** 21 ** **
Farmers 9 18 11 6 7 6 0 ** 24 ** **
Housewives 12 12 6 8 9 12 14 ** 8 ** **
  '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Union Households 10 12 4 11 8 14 11 12 9 9 16
Non-Union Households 8 11 6 9 9 12 9 14 13 10 17
  '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
South 9 10 7 9 9 10 8 10 13 10 16
Nonsouth 8 12 6 10 9 13 10 15 11 10 17
  '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 21
Born 1975-1990 ** ** 0 19 10 12 19 18 13 18 22
Born 1959-1974 11 14 8 15 12 15 8 15 13 9 15
Born 1943-1958 9 11 5 6 6 10 7 12 8 4 14
Born 1927-1942 5 9 5 5 9 9 6 11 12 6 15
Born 1911-1926 9 11 4 8 10 15 15 6 19 17 5
Born 1895-1910 9 7 7 7 20 15 0 0 ** ** **
Born before 1895 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Democrats (incl leaners) 8 11 6 9 9 12 11 14 14 12 15
Independents 13 11 9 15 13 15 13 22 15 13 25
Republicans (incl leaners) 8 12 5 9 9 11 6 12 8 6 15
  '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Liberals 4 6 5 9 8 13 11 15 11 11 15
Moderates 9 15 5 10 13 14 10 13 11 16 22
Conservatives 8 10 5 8 7 9 6 11 7 6 13

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 5B.2.3
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 26OCT15)