The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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External Political Efficacy Index 1952-2012
AVERAGE AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS FOR:      AVERAGE SCORE ON INDEX


  AVG. OF GROUP: '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Males 69 ** 74 ** 75 ** 67 65 59 59 57 54 53 52 54 52 64 45 50 36 52 34 36 43 48 59 48 36 35
Females 63 ** 70 ** 72 ** 66 61 56 57 53 54 52 50 53 52 62 45 48 34 51 32 39 40 45 62 45 41 37
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
White non-Hispanic 69 ** 74 ** 75 ** 68 64 59 60 56 56 53 52 54 53 64 50 51 36 53 35 38 43 48 63 49 39 35
Black non-Hispanic 42 ** 46 ** 62 ** 59 50 49 41 42 42 44 41 48 44 53 28 38 28 45 32 33 37 39 49 41 33 42
Hispanic ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 50 36 46 43 25 48 53 55 56 65 25 41 35 51 25 37 39 44 50 42 38 39
Race oth/mult non-Hisp ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 75 63 44 55 15 62 36 47 41 44 43 41 44 46 23 37 49 46 62 57 39 30
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 52 ** 51 ** 59 ** 47 43 34 36 35 30 31 30 33 32 40 29 31 16 33 15 22 25 18 32 21 20 26
High School Diploma 72 ** 77 ** 77 ** 70 63 58 59 52 52 49 47 48 47 58 37 42 30 45 26 29 35 37 53 38 29 31
Some College, no Degree 83 ** 90 ** 89 ** 81 82 72 74 70 68 59 58 64 55 72 49 55 40 56 39 45 42 49 64 49 42 37
College Degree/ Post-grad 91 ** 93 ** 84 ** 84 86 79 82 76 76 76 70 69 72 77 68 67 52 66 50 50 59 64 74 61 50 41
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Income 0-16 Percentile 47 ** 49 ** 57 ** 47 45 38 37 41 41 38 39 42 38 48 32 35 25 41 24 37 39 35 ** 36 33 34
Income 17-33 Percentile 59 ** 65 ** 66 ** 63 51 49 46 46 46 41 44 47 47 55 39 42 32 47 28 31 35 42 ** 43 34 34
Income 34-67 Percentile 71 ** 74 ** 77 ** 72 67 61 57 55 57 54 51 56 51 66 47 48 35 52 35 35 37 45 ** 47 39 34
Income 68-95 Percentile 75 ** 85 ** 78 ** 75 70 71 71 66 63 60 60 63 63 73 55 61 41 58 38 42 47 55 ** 57 43 38
Income 96-100 Percentile 85 ** 91 ** 96 ** 83 81 70 82 78 75 74 65 61 67 79 66 69 53 67 58 57 64 69 ** 58 52 46
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Professionals 81 ** 87 ** 86 ** 78 ** 71 75 71 66 66 62 64 65 75 60 60 48 61 44 46 52 57 ** 56 ** **
White Collar 76 ** 81 ** 83 ** 74 ** 63 68 62 62 58 53 55 55 64 49 52 36 56 37 39 37 47 ** 47 ** **
Blue Collar 68 ** 70 ** 71 ** 63 ** 50 51 47 47 43 44 46 44 56 30 40 27 43 24 30 33 34 ** 37 ** **
Unskilled 49 ** 52 ** 66 ** 56 ** 50 48 40 27 40 41 46 41 48 46 40 32 45 22 14 21 42 ** 37 ** **
Farmers 55 ** 58 ** 60 ** 47 ** 45 36 44 45 43 42 46 44 49 38 40 32 42 31 35 43 48 ** 52 ** **
Housewives 63 ** 70 ** 69 ** 66 ** 57 52 50 50 51 47 50 48 61 47 46 31 49 32 35 40 46 ** 48 ** **
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Union Households 69 ** 73 ** 73 ** 67 61 57 58 52 53 52 50 55 51 64 44 49 35 49 31 32 43 47 59 47 35 35
Non-Union Households 65 ** 72 ** 74 ** 67 63 57 58 56 54 52 51 53 53 62 45 49 35 52 34 39 42 46 61 46 39 36
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
South 56 ** 63 ** 65 ** 59 54 53 50 47 45 44 48 53 50 60 41 43 30 50 33 38 42 42 60 47 38 37
Nonsouth 69 ** 75 ** 76 ** 69 65 59 61 57 57 55 52 53 53 64 47 51 37 52 34 37 41 48 61 46 39 35
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 37
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 54 35 47 46 41 57 43 43 35
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 53 57 55 65 50 49 40 52 34 37 40 48 62 49 39 36
Born 1943-1958 ** ** ** ** ** ** 71 75 66 60 58 60 53 53 54 53 68 44 50 38 55 37 40 44 48 62 52 38 36
Born 1927-1942 70 ** 76 ** 76 ** 73 69 65 65 59 58 57 54 58 55 61 44 52 31 51 33 37 38 45 59 40 30 39
Born 1911-1926 69 ** 75 ** 78 ** 68 65 59 60 55 53 53 48 52 49 61 46 44 25 47 21 27 41 43 57 41 47 29
Born 1895-1910 70 ** 71 ** 72 ** 61 53 43 50 46 41 41 39 44 47 43 33 37 20 40 21 46 28 34 43 ** ** **
Born before 1895 54 ** 59 ** 60 ** 54 44 43 39 45 38 47 52 28 33 50 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Democrats (incl leaners) 66 ** 69 ** 71 ** 68 63 55 57 51 54 50 51 52 49 60 39 43 33 51 32 37 43 45 57 42 38 38
Independents & Apolitical 60 ** 76 ** 65 ** 60 60 50 51 46 48 45 43 47 46 54 38 40 25 43 23 25 31 37 44 33 35 29
Republicans (incl leaners) 71 ** 79 ** 82 ** 69 64 64 63 64 57 59 54 58 59 68 57 57 41 55 38 41 44 51 68 55 40 35
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Liberals ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 63 61 57 56 60 58 68 48 50 47 57 43 47 49 53 61 44 46 40
Moderates ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 59 59 57 53 53 54 67 49 49 33 52 32 35 40 52 62 47 36 32
Conservatives ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 65 60 59 56 60 60 71 50 57 40 55 38 42 44 53 67 56 41 35

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group


table 5B.4.1
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table

(Table generated: 04NOV15)