The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Worked for a Party or Candidate 1952-2008
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'No'


  % OF GROUP: '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Males 96 ** 97 ** 93 96 95 ** 95 93 96 94 96 94 97 93 95 96 97 97 97 97 97 98 96 95 97 96
Females 98 ** 97 ** 96 96 95 ** 94 93 94 96 96 95 96 95 97 97 97 98 97 97 98 98 98 97 97 95
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Whites 96 ** 97 ** 94 96 95 ** 94 93 95 95 96 94 96 94 96 96 97 97 96 97 97 98 97 97 96 96
Blacks 100 ** 99 ** 96 98 95 ** 96 93 96 99 96 94 99 93 95 97 97 96 96 98 99 100 97 95 99 95
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 99 ** 98 ** 95 98 98 ** 97 98 99 98 98 98 98 97 98 97 100 99 98 100 98 99 100 91 100 99
High School Diploma 97 ** 97 ** 95 96 97 ** 95 95 96 97 97 96 97 96 97 98 99 98 98 97 99 98 98 98 99 98
Some College, no Degree 91 ** 96 ** 95 96 91 ** 92 87 92 93 94 93 97 95 95 97 96 98 97 96 97 99 97 96 94 95
College Degree/ Post-grad 93 ** 89 ** 87 90 83 ** 91 82 90 89 90 88 94 88 93 93 92 96 94 96 95 97 96 95 96 94
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Income 0-16 Percentile 97 ** 99 ** 97 99 98 ** 98 99 98 97 98 96 97 96 97 99 99 98 98 100 99 100 98 ** 98 95
Income 17-33 Percentile 98 ** 98 ** 95 99 96 ** 95 94 96 96 97 97 99 94 97 97 98 99 98 97 99 99 98 ** 99 97
Income 34-67 Percentile 97 ** 97 ** 96 96 95 ** 94 95 96 96 98 94 96 96 96 97 98 97 96 97 98 98 96 ** 98 97
Income 68-95 Percentile 96 ** 95 ** 94 95 93 ** 92 89 92 93 94 93 96 92 96 95 94 97 96 95 95 98 95 ** 94 95
Income 96-100 Percentile 93 ** 92 ** 77 86 88 ** 92 80 90 86 83 91 89 95 93 92 96 94 95 94 98 94 98 ** 95 98
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Professionals 93 ** 93 ** 93 ** 91 ** 93 87 92 91 92 91 95 90 93 93 94 96 95 95 96 96 97 ** 95 **
White Collar 97 ** 97 ** 95 ** 91 ** 89 90 93 95 95 93 96 96 96 97 97 98 96 96 97 99 98 ** 96 **
Blue Collar 98 ** 98 ** 93 ** 97 ** 98 96 97 97 97 97 98 96 97 98 99 98 98 98 99 100 96 ** 99 **
Unskilled 100 ** 97 ** 100 ** 100 ** 95 100 91 97 97 95 95 92 95 98 100 100 96 98 96 100 100 ** 98 **
Farmers 95 ** 99 ** 94 ** 97 ** 89 95 96 95 100 95 96 93 94 98 93 94 98 100 100 100 94 ** 100 **
Housewives 97 ** 97 ** 96 ** 95 ** 95 95 95 97 96 95 96 96 98 99 97 98 96 97 98 98 99 ** 98 **
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Union Households 98 ** 96 ** 94 ** 96 ** 95 95 96 97 96 95 98 95 95 96 96 99 97 96 96 98 97 98 97 95
Non-Union Households 96 ** 97 ** 95 ** 94 ** 94 92 95 95 96 94 96 94 96 97 97 97 96 97 98 98 97 96 97 96
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
South 98 ** 97 ** 96 96 96 ** 95 96 96 96 96 95 96 95 95 98 98 97 96 96 98 99 97 97 97 96
Nonsouth 97 ** 97 ** 94 96 94 ** 94 92 94 95 95 94 97 94 96 96 96 98 97 97 97 98 97 96 97 96
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 97
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 85 100 100 98 98 99 97 96
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 96 98 94 96 99 98 99 98 99 98 99 98 98 98 94
Born 1943-1958 ** ** ** ** ** ** 95 ** 98 94 97 96 97 95 98 95 95 96 97 97 96 96 97 97 95 97 96 97
Born 1927-1942 97 ** 98 ** 96 97 94 ** 92 93 92 94 94 93 95 95 98 95 96 96 95 95 96 99 97 93 95 97
Born 1911-1926 96 ** 95 ** 93 95 95 ** 94 91 94 96 95 94 95 93 94 97 95 96 97 96 99 99 99 89 100 **
Born 1895-1910 97 ** 97 ** 94 96 96 ** 96 94 97 95 96 95 97 95 99 97 100 100 98 100 91 100 100 100 ** **
Born before 1895 97 ** 99 ** 97 99 94 ** 96 96 96 100 98 96 100 100 100 100 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Democrats (incl leaners) 98 ** 97 ** 96 96 97 ** 96 93 95 95 95 94 98 94 95 96 96 98 96 97 98 99 98 96 96 95
Independents 94 ** 99 ** 96 98 99 ** 96 97 98 98 97 98 99 97 97 99 98 99 97 100 99 99 99 100 100 99
Republicans (incl leaners) 95 ** 95 ** 91 96 90 ** 91 91 94 94 95 92 94 95 97 97 97 97 97 96 98 97 96 96 97 97
  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Liberals ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 90 94 93 92 95 92 95 94 95 96 94 97 96 99 96 94 93 91
Moderates ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 95 96 94 93 97 93 97 97 97 99 97 98 98 98 98 98 99 98
Conservatives ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 95 94 94 93 95 92 95 96 95 96 96 95 97 98 95 95 96 96

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 6B.3.1
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 05AUG10)