The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

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Republican Presidential Candidate Strong Leader 1980-2008
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Not Too Well/ Not Well at All'


  % OF GROUP: '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Males 35 ** 26 ** 46 ** 41 ** 39 ** 34 ** 31 36
Females 45 ** 31 ** 46 ** 46 ** 42 ** 33 ** 40 36
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Whites non-Hispanic 37 ** 25 ** 45 ** 42 ** 37 ** 31 ** 31 29
Black non-Hispanic 67 ** 57 ** 55 ** 56 ** 54 ** 48 ** 57 64
Hispanic 41 ** 35 ** 44 ** 39 ** 53 ** 33 ** 30 42
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 23 ** 21 ** 57 ** 40 ** 35 ** 33 ** 37 63
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 43 ** 33 ** 47 ** 45 ** 46 ** 39 ** 50 51
High School Diploma 42 ** 32 ** 46 ** 43 ** 44 ** 33 ** 36 43
Some College, no Degree 38 ** 25 ** 45 ** 41 ** 39 ** 32 ** 32 32
College Degree/ Post-grad 35 ** 23 ** 48 ** 49 ** 35 ** 34 ** 37 28
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Income 0-16 Percentile 47 ** 39 ** 45 ** 44 ** 45 ** 28 ** 43 53
Income 17-33 Percentile 45 ** 37 ** 48 ** 43 ** 49 ** 39 ** 41 41
Income 34-67 Percentile 41 ** 27 ** 48 ** 44 ** 41 ** 32 ** 37 37
Income 68-95 Percentile 34 ** 24 ** 43 ** 41 ** 33 ** 35 ** 29 20
Income 96-100 Percentile 29 ** 10 ** 29 ** 49 ** 34 ** 27 ** 29 16
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Professionals 37 ** 24 ** 49 ** 49 ** 37 ** 34 ** 41 **
White Collar 41 ** 32 ** 42 ** 42 ** 44 ** 31 ** 32 **
Blue Collar 42 ** 33 ** 49 ** 43 ** 43 ** 38 ** 36 **
Unskilled 45 ** 36 ** 50 ** 50 ** 42 ** 39 ** 46 **
Farmers 33 ** 14 ** 36 ** 29 ** 20 ** 32 ** 29 **
Housewives 40 ** 23 ** 42 ** 43 ** 38 ** 23 ** 23 **
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Union Households 46 ** 36 ** 55 ** 48 ** 42 ** 36 ** 51 43
Non-Union Households 38 ** 27 ** 44 ** 43 ** 40 ** 33 ** 32 35
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
South 39 ** 30 ** 39 ** 40 ** 40 ** 28 ** 32 30
Nonsouth 41 ** 28 ** 49 ** 46 ** 41 ** 36 ** 38 40
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** 31 ** 46 ** 36 ** 45 38
Born 1959-1974 45 ** 27 ** 40 ** 37 ** 42 ** 25 ** 32 36
Born 1943-1958 42 ** 26 ** 48 ** 48 ** 37 ** 39 ** 30 35
Born 1927-1942 36 ** 29 ** 47 ** 44 ** 41 ** 40 ** 38 29
Born 1911-1926 42 ** 35 ** 49 ** 50 ** 40 ** 33 ** 49 59
Born 1895-1910 38 ** 29 ** 45 ** 39 ** 40 ** 0 ** ** **
Born before 1895 33 ** 33 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Democrats (incl leaners) 58 ** 48 ** 65 ** 59 ** 51 ** 52 ** 58 56
Independents 44 ** 26 ** 49 ** 52 ** 48 ** 29 ** 45 33
Republicans (incl leaners) 13 ** 7 ** 24 ** 22 ** 24 ** 12 ** 7 9
  '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08
Liberals 59 ** 41 ** 69 ** 64 ** 47 ** 51 ** 59 50
Moderates 37 ** 31 ** 48 ** 46 ** 43 ** 39 ** 39 34
Conservatives 26 ** 15 ** 32 ** 30 ** 28 ** 20 ** 15 16

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 7C.8.2
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 02NOV15)