Questionnaire Information Page

This page contains links to documents that are pertinent to the questionnaires developed for the 2008 version of the ANES Time Series surveys.

The main link leads to a document entitled "Background Information on the ANES 2008 Time Series Questionnaires." This document provides a general overview of the questionnaire development process and describes rationales for the questionnaire's changes and new items.

Links lower on the page lead to various documents written by the 2008 ANES Principal Investigators. These documents reflect the factual and theoretical foundations they drew upon when: soliciting proposals through the Online Commons, working with the Board of Overseers to review the many interesting proposals we received, making final decisions on how to filter these various recommendations into the final questionnaire.

We hope that this information will clarify important properties of the 2008 Time Series data as well as providing a stronger foundation for future debate and scholarship on ANES and other election survey questionnaires. If you have comments or questions on any of these matters please send them to us at

Selected Articles on How to Optimize or Improve Questionnaires

Krosnick, J. A., & Fabrigar, L. R. 1997. Designing rating scales for effective measurement in surveys. In L. Lyberg, P. Biemer, M. Collins, L. Decker, E. DeLeeuw, C. Dippo, N. Schwarz, and D. Trewin (Eds.), Survey Measurement and Process Quality. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Krosnick, J.A. 2002. The causes of no-opinion responses to attitude measures in surveys:They rarely are what they appear to be. In R.M. Groves, D.A. Dillman, J.L. Eltinge, and R.J.A. Little (Eds.).Survey Nonresponse.  New York: Wiley, 88-100.

Malhotra, N., Krosnick, J. A., and Thomas, R. K. 2007.  Optimal design of branching questions to measure bipolar constructs.  Public Opinion Quarterly, 71, E485-E518

Krosnick, J. A. 1999. Survey research. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 537-567

Selected Articles on How to Optimize or Improve Questionnaire Development Procedures

Kenyatha V. Loftis and Arthur Lupia. 2008. Using the Internet to Create Research Opportunities: The New Virtual Communities of TESS and the American National Election Studies. PS: Political Science and Politics 41: 547-550.

Arthur Lupia. 2008. Procedural Transparency and the Credibility of Election Surveys. Electoral Studies, 27, 732-739.