The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Government Services and Spending 1982-2020

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "More Services/ Spending (5,6,7)"

  '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '06 '08 '10 '12 '14 '16 '18 '20
Males 22 28 38 29 34 27 22 24 35 31 ** 39 ** 37 ** 26 ** 29 ** 41
Females 27 31 45 32 40 33 33 32 43 46 ** 47 ** 45 ** 29 ** 32 ** 47
White non-Hispanic 21 27 37 27 33 27 26 25 35 36 ** 41 ** 38 ** 23 ** 27 ** 38
Black non-Hispanic 49 47 64 45 55 48 41 42 54 46 ** 55 ** 54 ** 45 ** 44 ** 58
Hispanic 29 34 55 44 47 33 29 39 53 44 ** 43 ** 43 ** 36 ** 38 ** 56
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 36 32 38 34 37 40 12 23 38 50 ** 42 ** 55 ** 27 ** 37 ** 51
8th Grade or Lower 22 26 40 28 31 32 23 38 36 27 ** 49 ** 49 ** 44 ** 13 ** 51
High School (Grades 9-12) 23 28 45 31 37 30 30 28 40 42 ** 39 ** 39 ** 27 ** 29 ** 41
Some College, no Degree 28 33 41 33 40 32 26 29 43 41 ** 45 ** 39 ** 26 ** 29 ** 41
College Degree/ Post-grad 26 30 36 28 38 29 25 26 35 35 ** 46 ** 46 ** 27 ** 34 ** 47
Income 0-16 Percentile 30 35 48 37 43 37 37 41 49 54 ** 49 ** 48 ** 35 ** 34 ** 50
Income 17-33 Percentile 27 30 46 35 41 31 33 31 41 39 ** 48 ** 53 ** 37 ** 34 ** 47
Income 34-67 Percentile 26 29 42 31 37 32 26 27 37 36 ** 44 ** 37 ** 25 ** 30 ** 43
Income 68-95 Percentile 25 30 34 29 36 27 23 20 38 41 ** 38 ** 39 ** 21 ** 29 ** 43
Income 96-100 Percentile 17 26 38 17 31 24 27 27 38 28 ** 40 ** 32 ** 25 ** 22 ** 43
Professionals 24 30 35 29 39 30 23 26 35 36 ** 43 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
White Collar 21 28 41 31 34 28 32 26 38 44 ** 39 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Blue Collar 28 32 47 31 41 32 30 28 38 37 ** 47 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Unskilled 44 40 54 45 29 41 23 50 40 35 ** 47 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Farmers 19 18 26 21 26 17 24 25 39 54 ** 44 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Housewives 21 25 43 28 36 31 27 27 41 42 ** 38 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Union Households 33 36 48 34 38 34 31 30 45 51 ** 49 ** 45 ** 30 ** 36 ** 49
Non-Union Households 22 28 40 30 37 30 27 28 38 37 ** 42 ** 41 ** 27 ** 30 ** 43
South 21 29 40 29 38 28 27 30 41 37 ** 40 ** 38 ** 28 ** 28 ** 40
Nonsouth 26 30 43 32 37 31 28 27 39 40 ** 44 ** 43 ** 27 ** 32 ** 46
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 28 ** 33 ** 53
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** 31 20 45 52 50 ** 54 ** 46 ** 29 ** 36 ** 49
Born 1959-1974 29 38 47 40 43 36 31 32 44 42 ** 44 ** 43 ** 28 ** 30 ** 42
Born 1943-1958 29 31 44 33 40 33 30 25 39 39 ** 39 ** 37 ** 27 ** 28 ** 39
Born 1927-1942 24 28 40 24 33 26 23 25 31 31 ** 38 ** 38 ** 22 ** 24 ** 28
Born 1911-1926 20 25 36 23 28 20 22 20 28 29 ** 33 ** 33 ** 21 ** 9 ** 34
Born 1895-1910 16 20 29 25 33 25 25 23 43 29 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 14 33 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) 33 40 52 41 47 39 34 38 45 51 ** 56 ** 54 ** 43 ** 48 ** 69
Independents 20 25 39 29 31 27 30 22 46 44 ** 43 ** 40 ** 22 ** 28 ** 39
Republicans 11 18 28 20 26 19 19 17 30 21 ** 29 ** 24 ** 10 ** 11 ** 18
Liberals 48 45 53 51 55 49 48 47 53 56 ** 62 ** 64 ** 50 ** 60 ** 76
Moderates 26 31 45 35 38 31 27 27 35 33 ** 46 ** 48 ** 25 ** 30 ** 44
Conservatives 16 20 28 23 28 22 16 18 32 24 ** 26 ** 27 ** 14 ** 11 ** 18