The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Aid to Blacks/Minorities 1970-2016

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "Help Themselves (5,6,7)"

  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '06 '08 '10 '12 '14 '16
Males 45 39 42 41 46 45 41 36 43 48 49 51 54 59 43 51 ** 49 ** 51 ** 53 ** 44
Females 37 36 33 32 40 40 37 30 39 41 39 41 47 48 37 49 ** 43 ** 45 ** 50 ** 37
White non-Hispanic 44 41 40 39 46 45 42 36 43 50 48 50 56 58 45 54 ** 52 ** 54 ** 59 ** 47
Black non-Hispanic 6 8 8 11 16 20 15 14 26 23 24 29 24 32 19 29 ** 22 ** 22 ** 25 ** 17
Hispanic 29 37 47 22 16 27 27 14 39 25 31 29 35 39 28 38 ** 39 ** 31 ** 36 ** 25
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 63 38 14 20 42 41 36 41 38 20 53 56 64 55 53 54 ** 46 ** 50 ** 49 ** 37
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 39 44 42 32 31 34 28 26 43 34 44 42 37 25 26 38 ** 45 ** 35 ** 32 ** 30
High School Diploma 41 40 36 39 43 43 40 34 41 45 45 47 51 54 44 51 ** 47 ** 48 ** 49 ** 40
Some College, no Degree 45 33 39 35 47 42 46 33 40 45 44 52 51 56 40 48 ** 48 ** 49 ** 54 ** 43
College Degree/ Post-grad 36 29 31 31 45 44 32 32 38 44 38 39 49 53 36 51 ** 41 ** 48 ** 53 ** 39
Income 0-16 Percentile 28 36 23 22 28 28 33 21 35 35 34 36 38 36 40 42 ** 37 ** 35 ** 38 ** 30
Income 17-33 Percentile 40 36 36 34 38 42 38 30 43 36 38 44 45 50 33 40 ** 45 ** 40 ** 43 ** 36
Income 34-67 Percentile 42 40 36 37 45 41 37 37 42 46 45 45 53 57 41 51 ** 46 ** 50 ** 56 ** 42
Income 68-95 Percentile 45 37 42 42 50 50 45 35 43 49 48 54 58 60 44 57 ** 50 ** 58 ** 60 ** 45
Income 96-100 Percentile 37 38 65 44 54 60 47 41 45 54 56 48 48 56 43 52 ** 54 ** 59 ** 56 ** 47
Professionals 42 35 35 38 45 46 36 32 39 46 44 43 50 55 39 50 ** 44 ** ** ** ** ** **
White Collar 39 35 39 37 44 46 41 36 41 47 43 49 57 58 39 53 ** 47 ** ** ** ** ** **
Blue Collar 41 38 39 39 41 38 40 33 44 43 44 48 49 51 41 48 ** 48 ** ** ** ** ** **
Unskilled 46 17 35 26 39 26 26 40 35 31 45 44 47 41 39 61 ** 22 ** ** ** ** ** **
Farmers 34 49 56 37 37 46 30 30 39 46 50 46 51 52 67 49 ** 50 ** ** ** ** ** **
Housewives 41 42 34 34 43 40 42 29 36 40 42 39 47 49 48 50 ** 55 ** ** ** ** ** **
Union Households 38 37 37 38 43 41 42 35 40 42 45 45 45 51 39 51 ** 41 ** 48 ** 47 ** 42
Non-Union Households 41 38 37 36 42 42 38 32 41 44 43 46 52 53 40 49 ** 47 ** 48 ** 52 ** 40
South 52 43 37 37 44 45 43 33 44 48 46 48 51 50 40 53 ** 43 ** 52 ** 53 ** 44
Nonsouth 36 36 37 36 42 40 37 32 39 42 42 45 50 54 40 48 ** 47 ** 44 ** 51 ** 39
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 41 ** 30
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 23 58 48 39 39 ** 37 ** 41 ** 47 ** 35
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** 34 33 41 33 36 45 41 46 49 55 40 51 ** 47 ** 49 ** 54 ** 44
Born 1943-1958 35 30 28 30 41 41 40 34 41 46 43 46 51 55 41 53 ** 47 ** 51 ** 54 ** 47
Born 1927-1942 42 38 38 38 49 45 42 35 42 45 49 45 49 50 38 54 ** 51 ** 52 ** 56 ** 42
Born 1911-1926 41 42 43 42 43 45 34 30 40 38 43 45 50 51 42 43 ** 49 ** 50 ** 61 ** 41
Born 1895-1910 42 43 42 39 37 36 36 27 49 43 53 50 40 44 14 29 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 42 37 44 32 32 40 57 0 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) 36 34 33 32 38 35 32 24 34 34 37 37 38 42 29 38 ** 32 ** 33 ** 34 ** 21
Independents 38 38 35 35 39 35 38 31 44 44 45 44 48 50 33 50 ** 43 ** 49 ** 49 ** 36
Republicans 48 44 46 43 52 55 52 44 48 55 53 58 65 67 58 67 ** 63 ** 67 ** 73 ** 64
Liberals ** 17 25 25 37 31 29 23 31 32 33 30 28 37 24 35 ** 28 ** 31 ** 31 ** 16
Moderates ** 40 34 36 45 45 35 37 41 43 45 45 50 52 40 56 ** 42 ** 49 ** 48 ** 39
Conservatives ** 53 55 53 58 54 53 43 51 57 53 59 64 69 55 63 ** 61 ** 66 ** 71 ** 68