The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Voter Registration 1952-2016

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "Not Registered"

  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '06 '08 '10 '12 '14 '16
Males 14 ** 13 ** 11 ** 12 ** 12 ** 14 ** 16 29 19 22 18 27 18 30 16 26 14 22 14 11 11 ** 16 ** 9 ** 12
Females 23 ** 22 ** 20 ** 16 ** 17 ** 18 ** 22 27 23 24 19 25 22 31 20 22 14 17 17 16 10 ** 12 ** 9 ** 9
White non-Hispanic 14 ** 15 ** 13 ** 12 ** 14 ** 16 ** 19 26 21 23 17 25 18 29 16 22 13 19 14 13 10 ** 13 ** 9 ** 10
Black non-Hispanic 62 ** 53 ** 44 ** 25 ** 21 ** 11 ** 24 35 18 20 23 27 22 28 20 29 18 22 16 18 9 ** 12 ** 4 ** 8
Hispanic ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 36 ** 43 ** 30 42 35 40 24 39 26 42 29 34 16 21 24 16 13 ** 20 ** 12 ** 11
Race oth/mult non-Hisp ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 0 ** 0 ** 26 48 41 27 32 38 31 36 24 32 16 13 16 17 14 ** 12 ** 11 ** 19
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 29 ** 27 ** 26 ** 20 ** 22 ** 27 ** 27 33 31 34 32 36 31 34 30 41 31 21 25 33 32 ** 38 ** 20 ** 13
High School Diploma 14 ** 17 ** 13 ** 14 ** 14 ** 18 ** 24 33 26 27 24 33 29 38 26 33 21 25 23 19 15 ** 22 ** 14 ** 19
Some College, no Degree 7 ** 7 ** 11 ** 6 ** 14 ** 6 ** 11 22 17 19 12 20 13 26 12 16 10 20 12 12 8 ** 8 ** 8 ** 9
College Degree/ Post-grad 4 ** 5 ** 3 ** 8 ** 7 ** 7 ** 8 14 6 9 5 12 3 13 5 9 3 7 4 4 2 ** 4 ** 3 ** 3
Income 0-16 Percentile 35 ** 32 ** 27 ** 23 ** 24 ** 24 ** 32 35 31 30 36 37 38 43 34 38 28 28 33 ** 17 ** 26 ** 15 ** 20
Income 17-33 Percentile 21 ** 25 ** 24 ** 18 ** 23 ** 24 ** 22 34 25 31 23 32 23 35 25 30 21 26 17 ** 16 ** 16 ** 16 ** 15
Income 34-67 Percentile 18 ** 16 ** 14 ** 14 ** 12 ** 19 ** 21 28 22 23 17 25 18 32 16 23 16 19 17 ** 9 ** 11 ** 7 ** 10
Income 68-95 Percentile 11 ** 11 ** 11 ** 8 ** 8 ** 8 ** 14 23 12 14 10 19 12 21 9 17 6 14 6 ** 3 ** 9 ** 6 ** 6
Income 96-100 Percentile 0 ** 5 ** 0 ** 6 ** 3 ** 0 ** 6 14 8 17 5 16 4 18 8 10 0 9 3 ** 3 ** 11 ** 5 ** 2
Professionals 6 ** 6 ** 8 ** 9 ** 7 ** 8 ** 9 15 8 13 6 13 8 17 9 15 6 9 8 ** 4 ** ** ** ** ** **
White Collar 12 ** 12 ** 7 ** 7 ** 11 ** 11 ** 15 28 20 22 15 21 16 27 14 20 10 20 14 ** 9 ** ** ** ** ** **
Blue Collar 18 ** 20 ** 16 ** 14 ** 18 ** 19 ** 25 36 27 28 26 35 30 37 23 30 22 25 21 ** 16 ** ** ** ** ** **
Unskilled 38 ** 26 ** 15 ** 19 ** 20 ** 13 ** 28 46 28 32 26 39 26 43 26 37 29 25 16 ** 33 ** ** ** ** ** **
Farmers 16 ** 18 ** 11 ** 24 ** 21 ** 9 ** 22 32 17 23 27 30 22 38 33 36 15 7 9 ** 5 ** ** ** ** ** **
Housewives 21 ** 23 ** 25 ** 17 ** 16 ** 22 ** 25 26 26 25 23 29 22 32 23 27 19 18 18 ** 10 ** ** ** ** ** **
Union Households 19 ** 16 ** 18 ** 12 ** 15 ** 13 ** 14 24 18 20 15 24 18 24 12 17 10 14 10 10 5 ** 11 ** 6 ** 8
Non-Union Households 19 ** 19 ** 15 ** 14 ** 15 ** 17 ** 21 29 22 24 19 27 20 31 19 26 15 21 16 14 12 ** 14 ** 9 ** 11
South 40 ** 31 ** 25 ** 24 ** 20 ** 23 ** 25 31 22 25 23 32 27 36 25 29 20 23 20 18 13 ** 13 ** 8 ** 14
Nonsouth 13 ** 14 ** 13 ** 11 ** 13 ** 14 ** 18 27 21 22 17 23 17 27 15 21 11 17 13 12 10 ** 14 ** 9 ** 9
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 19 ** 19
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 15 52 21 44 27 29 18 ** 22 ** 12 ** 15
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 64 37 43 33 44 38 47 28 34 19 22 18 12 11 ** 12 ** 9 ** 7
Born 1943-1958 ** ** ** ** ** ** 43 ** 32 ** 22 ** 27 38 27 26 18 30 18 27 16 18 13 17 12 12 7 ** 9 ** 6 ** 6
Born 1927-1942 32 ** 31 ** 25 ** 19 ** 16 ** 14 ** 15 21 16 18 13 15 14 19 12 14 10 9 9 7 6 ** 8 ** 4 ** 5
Born 1911-1926 21 ** 17 ** 13 ** 11 ** 8 ** 12 ** 13 17 14 14 13 13 11 17 13 16 8 11 11 9 9 ** 14 ** 2 ** 8
Born 1895-1910 15 ** 14 ** 14 ** 9 ** 12 ** 15 ** 16 19 15 23 21 18 17 28 14 27 11 0 0 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 14 ** 14 ** 13 ** 12 ** 20 ** 19 ** 38 15 40 29 0 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) 19 ** 17 ** 15 ** 14 ** 14 ** 13 ** 17 26 18 19 18 22 18 26 16 22 15 17 12 14 9 ** 12 ** 7 ** 8
Independents 14 ** 16 ** 23 ** 30 ** 24 ** 42 ** 36 49 43 53 35 52 44 50 31 46 39 33 36 33 28 ** 35 ** 23 ** 28
Republicans 12 ** 14 ** 9 ** 8 ** 10 ** 11 ** 15 19 17 17 14 22 16 29 15 20 8 18 12 9 7 ** 8 ** 7 ** 7
Liberals ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 10 ** 14 26 15 16 13 21 20 22 13 18 9 19 7 12 7 ** 8 ** 5 ** 8
Moderates ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 14 ** 18 26 17 17 17 26 16 26 14 24 16 22 12 8 10 ** 12 ** 12 ** 12
Conservatives ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 10 ** 11 20 15 15 10 18 11 24 12 16 6 13 8 10 5 ** 9 ** 5 ** 6