The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Voter Registration 1952-2016

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "Registered Voter or Nonvoter"

  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '06 '08 '10 '12 '14 '16
Males 86 ** 87 ** 89 ** 88 ** 88 ** 86 ** 84 71 81 78 82 73 82 70 84 74 86 78 86 89 89 ** 84 ** 91 ** 88
Females 77 ** 78 ** 80 ** 84 ** 83 ** 82 ** 78 73 77 76 81 75 78 69 80 78 86 83 83 84 90 ** 88 ** 91 ** 91
White non-Hispanic 86 ** 85 ** 87 ** 88 ** 86 ** 84 ** 81 74 79 77 83 75 82 71 84 78 87 81 86 87 90 ** 87 ** 91 ** 90
Black non-Hispanic 38 ** 47 ** 56 ** 75 ** 79 ** 89 ** 76 65 82 80 77 73 78 72 80 71 82 78 84 82 91 ** 88 ** 96 ** 92
Hispanic ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 64 ** 57 ** 70 58 65 60 76 61 74 58 71 66 84 79 76 84 87 ** 80 ** 88 ** 89
Race oth/mult non-Hisp ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 100 ** 100 ** 74 52 59 73 68 63 69 64 76 68 84 87 84 83 86 ** 88 ** 89 ** 81
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 71 ** 73 ** 74 ** 80 ** 78 ** 73 ** 73 67 69 66 68 64 69 66 70 59 69 79 75 67 68 ** 62 ** 80 ** 87
High School Diploma 86 ** 83 ** 87 ** 86 ** 86 ** 82 ** 76 67 74 73 76 67 71 62 74 67 79 75 77 81 85 ** 78 ** 86 ** 81
Some College, no Degree 93 ** 93 ** 89 ** 94 ** 86 ** 94 ** 89 78 83 81 88 80 87 74 88 84 90 80 88 88 92 ** 92 ** 92 ** 91
College Degree/ Post-grad 96 ** 95 ** 97 ** 92 ** 93 ** 93 ** 92 86 94 91 95 88 97 87 95 91 97 93 96 96 98 ** 96 ** 97 ** 97
Income 0-16 Percentile 65 ** 68 ** 73 ** 77 ** 76 ** 76 ** 68 65 69 70 64 63 62 57 66 62 72 72 67 ** 83 ** 74 ** 85 ** 80
Income 17-33 Percentile 79 ** 75 ** 76 ** 82 ** 77 ** 76 ** 78 66 75 69 77 68 77 65 75 70 79 74 83 ** 84 ** 84 ** 84 ** 85
Income 34-67 Percentile 82 ** 84 ** 86 ** 86 ** 88 ** 81 ** 79 72 78 77 83 75 82 68 84 77 84 81 83 ** 91 ** 89 ** 93 ** 90
Income 68-95 Percentile 89 ** 89 ** 89 ** 92 ** 92 ** 92 ** 86 77 88 86 90 81 88 79 91 83 94 86 94 ** 97 ** 91 ** 94 ** 94
Income 96-100 Percentile 100 ** 95 ** 100 ** 94 ** 97 ** 100 ** 94 86 92 83 95 84 96 82 92 90 100 91 97 ** 97 ** 89 ** 95 ** 98
Professionals 94 ** 94 ** 92 ** 91 ** 93 ** 92 ** 91 85 92 87 94 87 92 83 91 85 94 91 92 ** 96 ** ** ** ** ** **
White Collar 88 ** 88 ** 93 ** 93 ** 89 ** 89 ** 85 72 80 78 85 79 84 73 86 80 90 80 86 ** 91 ** ** ** ** ** **
Blue Collar 82 ** 80 ** 84 ** 86 ** 82 ** 81 ** 75 64 73 72 74 65 70 63 77 70 78 75 79 ** 84 ** ** ** ** ** **
Unskilled 62 ** 74 ** 85 ** 81 ** 80 ** 87 ** 72 54 73 68 74 61 74 57 74 63 71 75 84 ** 67 ** ** ** ** ** **
Farmers 84 ** 82 ** 89 ** 76 ** 79 ** 91 ** 78 68 83 77 73 70 78 62 67 64 85 93 91 ** 95 ** ** ** ** ** **
Housewives 79 ** 77 ** 75 ** 83 ** 84 ** 78 ** 75 74 74 75 77 71 78 68 77 73 81 82 82 ** 90 ** ** ** ** ** **
Union Households 81 ** 84 ** 82 ** 88 ** 85 ** 87 ** 86 76 82 80 85 76 82 76 88 83 90 86 90 90 95 ** 89 ** 94 ** 92
Non-Union Households 81 ** 81 ** 85 ** 86 ** 85 ** 83 ** 79 71 78 76 81 73 80 69 81 74 85 79 84 86 88 ** 86 ** 91 ** 89
South 60 ** 69 ** 75 ** 76 ** 80 ** 77 ** 75 69 78 75 77 68 73 64 75 71 80 77 80 82 87 ** 87 ** 92 ** 86
Nonsouth 87 ** 86 ** 87 ** 89 ** 87 ** 86 ** 82 73 79 78 83 77 83 73 85 79 89 83 87 88 90 ** 86 ** 91 ** 91
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 81 ** 81
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 85 48 79 56 73 71 82 ** 78 ** 88 ** 85
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 36 63 57 67 56 62 53 72 66 81 78 82 88 89 ** 88 ** 91 ** 93
Born 1943-1958 ** ** ** ** ** ** 57 ** 68 ** 78 ** 73 62 73 74 82 70 82 73 84 82 87 83 88 88 93 ** 91 ** 94 ** 94
Born 1927-1942 68 ** 69 ** 75 ** 81 ** 84 ** 86 ** 85 79 84 82 87 85 86 81 88 86 90 91 91 93 94 ** 92 ** 96 ** 95
Born 1911-1926 79 ** 83 ** 87 ** 89 ** 92 ** 88 ** 87 83 86 86 87 87 89 83 87 84 92 89 89 91 91 ** 86 ** 98 ** 92
Born 1895-1910 85 ** 86 ** 86 ** 91 ** 88 ** 85 ** 84 81 85 77 79 82 83 72 86 73 89 100 100 100 ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 86 ** 86 ** 87 ** 88 ** 80 ** 81 ** 62 85 60 71 100 100 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) 81 ** 83 ** 85 ** 86 ** 86 ** 87 ** 83 74 82 81 82 78 82 74 84 78 85 83 88 86 91 ** 88 ** 93 ** 92
Independents 86 ** 84 ** 77 ** 70 ** 76 ** 58 ** 64 51 57 47 65 48 56 50 69 54 61 67 64 67 72 ** 65 ** 77 ** 72
Republicans 88 ** 86 ** 91 ** 92 ** 90 ** 89 ** 85 81 83 83 86 78 84 71 85 80 92 82 88 91 93 ** 92 ** 93 ** 93
Liberals ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 90 ** 86 74 85 84 87 79 80 78 87 82 91 81 93 88 93 ** 92 ** 95 ** 92
Moderates ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 86 ** 82 74 83 83 83 74 84 74 86 76 84 78 88 92 90 ** 88 ** 88 ** 88
Conservatives ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 90 ** 89 80 85 85 90 82 89 76 88 84 94 87 92 90 95 ** 91 ** 95 ** 94