The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Tried to Influence How Others Vote 1952-2020

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "Yes"

  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '06 '08 '10 '12 '14 '16 '18 '20
Males 33 ** 36 22 39 25 37 27 40 31 37 18 44 26 40 27 35 25 34 22 43 27 33 25 39 35 51 ** 46 ** 42 ** 51 ** 45
Females 22 ** 22 12 29 13 27 19 27 23 28 13 31 18 33 19 30 18 25 13 32 18 23 15 30 25 45 ** 45 ** 38 ** 47 ** 41
White non-Hispanic 29 ** 29 16 35 18 32 24 32 27 32 15 38 22 37 23 35 21 30 18 40 23 29 20 35 27 51 ** 47 ** 41 ** 51 ** 45
Black non-Hispanic 12 ** 23 22 22 17 24 11 40 19 31 11 32 17 30 23 26 19 26 14 27 14 23 16 27 39 38 ** 41 ** 41 ** 45 ** 36
Hispanic ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 15 14 29 33 ** 31 17 35 23 23 19 31 16 31 20 20 17 36 31 42 ** 38 ** 35 ** 47 ** 39
Race oth/mult non-Hisp ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 25 25 38 27 ** 40 32 29 9 12 15 18 10 27 22 29 35 39 39 47 ** 45 ** 37 ** 42 ** 43
8th Grade or Lower 18 ** 20 12 25 13 19 11 23 11 18 6 22 11 23 15 15 8 16 6 20 8 21 13 21 19 20 ** 31 ** 34 ** 57 ** 40
High School (Grades 9-12) 31 ** 28 15 34 16 28 21 31 22 28 12 31 15 30 17 27 16 23 13 31 15 22 13 31 23 44 ** 36 ** 34 ** 42 ** 37
Some College, no Degree 43 ** 42 29 44 21 44 38 41 48 44 19 48 30 44 28 38 26 35 22 43 28 31 21 33 29 51 ** 49 ** 43 ** 50 ** 43
College Degree/ Post-grad 47 ** 41 29 44 35 59 41 46 53 48 32 56 40 51 35 49 33 43 29 51 34 35 31 44 40 55 ** 57 ** 45 ** 56 ** 47
Income 0-16 Percentile 18 ** 17 12 24 11 18 13 21 13 21 6 25 13 30 19 24 13 17 11 27 17 21 11 27 ** 36 ** 40 ** 34 ** 42 ** 37
Income 17-33 Percentile 18 ** 22 13 25 9 28 19 28 16 30 10 32 17 27 18 26 18 22 12 32 17 22 13 31 ** 40 ** 43 ** 36 ** 47 ** 37
Income 34-67 Percentile 27 ** 33 18 32 20 32 21 35 23 30 16 35 22 36 23 34 21 31 18 39 22 27 17 34 ** 54 ** 44 ** 41 ** 49 ** 43
Income 68-95 Percentile 34 ** 34 21 43 26 37 28 42 39 39 18 44 27 44 28 38 26 39 22 46 26 36 26 42 ** 55 ** 51 ** 42 ** 52 ** 47
Income 96-100 Percentile 57 ** 40 25 42 25 54 41 35 50 52 38 58 32 53 26 49 35 38 27 44 36 44 31 48 ** 58 ** 56 ** 52 ** 60 ** 44
Professionals 44 ** 39 23 47 ** 47 ** 46 41 42 26 50 34 46 31 39 31 38 28 46 31 33 28 40 ** 56 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
White Collar 31 ** 29 27 39 ** 38 ** 31 32 34 14 40 23 35 22 32 20 31 13 36 22 27 20 33 ** 49 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Blue Collar 34 ** 33 20 32 ** 27 ** 32 20 30 11 36 17 34 18 32 18 22 14 35 18 25 14 32 ** 47 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Unskilled 16 ** 20 13 29 ** 31 ** 45 17 40 ** 32 10 28 26 30 21 31 7 26 14 29 14 19 ** 30 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Farmers 19 ** 29 6 34 ** 21 ** 29 19 16 15 21 25 21 20 14 16 31 15 29 17 25 ** 18 ** 48 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Housewives 20 ** 22 9 26 ** 25 ** 26 21 23 11 24 15 27 19 27 12 24 14 30 18 20 15 34 ** 32 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Union Households 29 ** 31 21 33 ** 30 24 36 25 32 14 38 21 38 28 35 23 31 16 40 23 33 25 43 35 56 ** 49 ** 40 ** 57 ** 48
Non-Union Households 27 ** 27 15 34 ** 32 22 32 27 32 15 36 22 36 21 32 20 29 18 37 22 27 18 33 28 46 ** 45 ** 40 ** 48 ** 42
South 27 ** 25 15 32 18 29 17 35 23 32 10 36 21 36 22 29 18 28 16 34 23 26 16 34 29 41 ** 47 ** 39 ** 48 ** 43
Nonsouth 28 ** 29 17 34 19 32 24 32 28 32 17 37 22 36 23 34 22 29 18 39 22 28 21 34 29 51 ** 44 ** 40 ** 49 ** 43
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 32 ** 48 ** 44
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 31 11 19 11 33 19 56 ** 41 ** 33 ** 44 ** 40
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 14 43 22 31 17 28 15 40 22 23 19 34 27 47 ** 45 ** 38 ** 50 ** 43
Born 1943-1958 ** ** ** ** ** ** 33 27 34 33 38 17 40 22 39 25 35 23 32 22 44 26 33 24 36 35 49 ** 52 ** 48 ** 55 ** 46
Born 1927-1942 33 ** 27 17 35 18 36 24 38 35 35 15 38 24 41 23 34 27 30 20 35 23 32 21 37 33 47 ** 45 ** 45 ** 47 ** 41
Born 1911-1926 26 ** 30 16 34 20 32 25 32 26 30 16 36 22 31 21 32 16 26 12 27 14 25 11 27 29 25 ** 25 ** 49 ** 34 ** 31
Born 1895-1910 31 ** 29 19 32 21 28 18 29 16 23 10 30 14 19 12 18 12 16 7 16 16 20 ** 9 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 23 ** 24 14 33 11 23 14 22 4 12 8 14 16 20 33 100 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) 25 ** 28 20 33 19 28 20 33 27 33 15 38 21 34 24 34 22 30 18 36 21 23 18 35 30 48 ** 43 ** 38 ** 53 ** 46
Independents 21 ** 24 10 29 11 24 15 27 19 19 9 25 9 21 10 19 9 14 6 23 5 18 8 20 19 34 ** 24 ** 23 ** 29 ** 30
Republicans 34 ** 32 16 38 21 42 30 36 30 35 18 42 30 45 25 35 24 32 21 44 28 36 24 39 31 51 ** 55 ** 48 ** 51 ** 43
Liberals ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 51 21 50 31 47 33 45 29 35 28 47 32 26 26 40 31 60 ** 54 ** 42 ** 63 ** 52
Moderates ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 30 14 35 20 32 25 31 19 26 14 34 15 26 14 30 29 45 ** 41 ** 32 ** 40 ** 34
Conservatives ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 37 21 49 30 44 31 39 28 37 26 49 32 38 27 38 34 51 ** 57 ** 48 ** 55 ** 47