The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Conservatism Index 1964-2016

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "Average Score on Index"

  '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '06 '08 '10 '12 '14 '16
Males 51 51 52 55 53 53 52 ** 55 54 52 52 54 51 53 56 55 52 52 53 53 ** 53 ** 53 ** 53
Females 50 52 51 53 53 52 52 ** 54 51 50 51 53 51 50 53 51 50 50 52 50 ** 50 ** 52 ** 50
White non-Hispanic 52 52 52 55 54 53 53 ** 56 53 51 52 55 52 52 56 54 52 52 53 52 ** 53 ** 55 ** 53
Black non-Hispanic 42 47 47 40 39 45 41 ** 44 46 46 44 46 44 45 48 47 46 46 48 49 ** 47 ** 45 ** 44
Hispanic ** 52 47 50 53 51 50 ** 51 54 50 54 49 52 48 54 50 48 48 52 52 ** 49 ** 49 ** 48
Race oth/mult non-Hisp ** 62 52 51 45 50 55 ** 49 51 50 52 49 49 51 47 54 49 47 49 51 ** 48 ** 50 ** 49
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 48 51 51 52 52 53 50 ** 55 50 50 49 53 50 50 53 50 53 49 52 52 ** 49 ** 54 ** 47
High School Diploma 51 52 52 54 53 53 53 ** 54 54 50 51 53 51 51 54 52 51 51 52 53 ** 51 ** 53 ** 53
Some College, no Degree 53 51 53 56 53 52 51 ** 56 52 52 53 55 51 50 56 53 50 51 53 53 ** 52 ** 53 ** 52
College Degree/ Post-grad 52 53 51 52 51 51 52 ** 54 51 51 51 53 49 52 55 54 51 51 52 49 ** 51 ** 51 ** 48
Income 0-16 Percentile 49 51 51 50 50 49 49 ** 52 51 47 49 51 50 48 50 48 50 47 ** 49 ** 49 ** 50 ** 50
Income 17-33 Percentile 49 51 51 52 52 49 50 ** 54 50 49 50 53 49 50 50 52 50 50 ** 50 ** 50 ** 51 ** 50
Income 34-67 Percentile 49 51 52 53 53 52 52 ** 53 52 51 52 54 51 51 55 52 50 51 ** 52 ** 51 ** 53 ** 52
Income 68-95 Percentile 53 52 52 55 54 54 53 ** 56 53 52 53 54 51 53 57 55 52 52 ** 53 ** 53 ** 54 ** 51
Income 96-100 Percentile 54 52 52 54 54 60 56 ** 60 58 57 52 57 55 53 55 56 53 54 ** 52 ** 57 ** 53 ** 51
Professionals 54 ** 52 55 53 52 53 ** 56 53 51 52 54 50 51 55 53 51 51 ** 49 ** ** ** ** ** **
White Collar 51 ** 52 53 53 53 52 ** 55 52 51 52 54 51 51 54 53 52 50 ** 54 ** ** ** ** ** **
Blue Collar 48 ** 51 52 51 52 51 ** 54 52 50 51 53 51 50 54 52 51 51 ** 52 ** ** ** ** ** **
Unskilled 49 ** 51 46 48 50 52 ** 52 54 47 51 53 48 52 51 48 53 49 ** 50 ** ** ** ** ** **
Farmers 52 ** 55 51 57 57 54 ** 54 57 58 52 55 55 55 55 59 47 56 ** 58 ** ** ** ** ** **
Housewives 50 ** 52 56 56 55 54 ** 54 53 53 53 54 53 53 56 55 55 54 ** 57 ** ** ** ** ** **
Union Households 47 50 51 51 52 52 50 ** 53 51 49 50 52 50 50 53 51 51 47 50 50 ** 49 ** 51 ** 47
Non-Union Households 52 52 52 54 53 53 53 ** 55 53 51 52 54 51 51 55 53 51 52 53 52 ** 51 ** 53 ** 52
South 53 54 53 56 54 54 52 ** 56 55 52 53 54 52 52 55 53 53 52 54 54 ** 53 ** 55 ** 55
Nonsouth 50 51 51 53 52 52 52 ** 54 52 50 51 53 51 51 54 52 50 50 52 51 ** 50 ** 52 ** 49
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 49 ** 49
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 43 52 49 49 46 49 49 ** 48 ** 50 ** 49
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 53 52 50 49 51 50 50 53 52 51 51 53 52 ** 51 ** 52 ** 51
Born 1943-1958 51 47 50 52 49 49 49 ** 53 51 50 51 53 50 51 55 53 51 51 52 53 ** 52 ** 54 ** 53
Born 1927-1942 49 51 51 53 52 54 54 ** 57 54 52 54 55 54 53 58 55 52 54 54 54 ** 55 ** 58 ** 55
Born 1911-1926 51 52 52 54 56 55 54 ** 56 54 51 52 55 52 51 54 52 53 50 54 50 ** 55 ** 55 ** 53
Born 1895-1910 52 52 53 54 56 54 54 ** 56 55 52 55 57 50 54 58 52 48 62 60 ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 52 53 53 57 53 58 57 ** 43 53 41 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) 47 49 49 49 49 48 48 ** 49 47 45 46 47 46 45 47 45 45 44 46 44 ** 44 ** 40 ** 38
Independents 50 51 52 55 52 52 51 ** 53 53 50 50 53 51 50 51 50 50 49 49 49 ** 50 ** 51 ** 51
Republicans 57 58 57 61 59 60 59 ** 63 60 57 60 60 57 60 64 62 59 59 60 61 ** 61 ** 67 ** 67
Liberals ** ** ** ** 38 39 40 ** 40 37 41 38 43 37 38 39 39 36 40 40 37 ** 39 ** 33 ** 30
Moderates ** ** ** ** 53 52 52 ** 53 51 49 50 51 51 50 50 50 51 47 49 48 ** 49 ** 49 ** 48
Conservatives ** ** ** ** 64 65 61 ** 65 64 60 62 62 61 62 66 64 61 61 63 63 ** 62 ** 69 ** 71