The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Average Feeling Thermometer Rating Toward Congressional Candidates 1978-2016

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "Incumbent Candidate"

  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12 '16
Males 67 64 64 61 65 64 65 60 59 61 59 62 60 64 59 48 57
Females 69 65 65 63 67 65 67 62 62 60 62 62 60 66 61 47 60
White non-Hispanic 68 64 64 62 65 64 65 61 59 60 60 62 61 64 60 48 58
Black non-Hispanic 72 73 70 62 69 63 67 64 67 62 65 65 56 70 65 47 64
Hispanic 68 59 66 63 67 66 72 65 62 63 59 63 55 65 64 46 60
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 67 59 64 69 73 67 64 60 57 58 59 58 57 57 54 46 58
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 74 73 69 66 69 65 74 70 64 62 64 72 66 64 70 46 46
High School Diploma 69 63 67 62 67 65 66 61 60 61 61 61 60 65 58 47 57
Some College, no Degree 66 65 61 61 65 64 67 62 60 59 61 62 60 65 61 47 61
College Degree/ Post-grad 65 63 61 62 64 64 62 60 60 61 60 62 60 65 62 48 58
Income 0-16 Percentile 70 71 68 63 69 66 69 63 63 61 61 63 ** 67 58 44 56
Income 17-33 Percentile 70 65 64 62 69 66 66 64 64 63 63 63 ** 65 61 49 59
Income 34-67 Percentile 69 64 66 62 65 63 67 61 61 60 60 61 ** 65 58 49 60
Income 68-95 Percentile 67 60 63 62 64 64 64 59 57 59 61 63 ** 64 62 47 58
Income 96-100 Percentile 67 66 63 60 66 72 57 61 59 61 57 62 ** 64 67 43 57
Professionals 68 64 63 62 64 65 65 60 60 61 60 63 ** 66 ** ** **
White Collar 68 63 66 63 65 66 65 63 57 61 63 61 ** 65 ** ** **
Blue Collar 68 65 66 63 67 62 66 62 62 60 59 62 ** 64 ** ** **
Unskilled 64 62 69 60 61 60 69 66 57 56 67 64 ** 66 ** ** **
Farmers 71 78 73 60 64 69 68 62 65 63 63 64 ** 62 ** ** **
Housewives 70 66 64 61 67 69 69 59 63 59 61 58 ** 65 ** ** **
Union Households 69 63 64 62 67 65 69 63 66 60 60 63 62 64 57 48 60
Non-Union Households 68 65 65 62 66 64 66 61 59 61 61 62 60 65 61 47 58
South 70 67 68 64 69 66 67 62 64 62 62 63 60 68 63 47 57
Nonsouth 68 63 63 61 64 64 65 61 58 60 60 62 60 64 58 48 59
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 45 54
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 56 57 55 60 57 56 57 57 46 56
Born 1959-1974 64 58 59 58 63 61 62 57 59 58 57 59 58 64 61 47 59
Born 1943-1958 65 61 63 59 63 62 64 61 59 59 62 63 61 67 60 48 62
Born 1927-1942 68 64 65 64 66 68 70 63 61 64 65 65 65 68 65 49 64
Born 1911-1926 72 69 68 66 72 68 72 68 66 65 60 68 67 68 64 49 60
Born 1895-1910 74 71 68 71 74 69 69 60 58 65 65 70 59 ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 72 85 64 85 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) 70 68 66 65 69 66 68 64 64 60 59 62 60 66 60 48 59
Independents 64 58 61 59 62 60 63 57 56 58 57 58 52 62 56 45 54
Republicans 67 63 63 60 63 63 64 59 58 62 64 62 62 64 61 48 60
Liberals 68 64 63 62 66 65 65 62 60 58 55 58 58 66 61 48 57
Moderates 68 64 65 63 67 65 65 62 62 61 61 64 62 64 59 46 58
Conservatives 68 64 64 61 65 66 65 60 59 61 63 64 62 63 62 48 62