The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Average Feeling Thermometer Rating Toward Congressional Candidates 1978-2016

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "Challenger Candidate"

  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12 '16
Males 52 51 51 48 24 46 52 50 52 49 52 50 52 49 55 55 48
Females 54 54 56 52 21 52 54 49 52 51 54 54 53 53 61 57 50
White non-Hispanic 53 53 53 51 24 50 53 50 52 49 52 53 53 50 56 56 50
Black non-Hispanic 46 51 59 47 16 45 56 47 55 52 57 51 52 55 68 61 49
Hispanic 58 52 61 48 21 49 53 53 55 53 56 53 51 52 63 55 44
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 53 46 54 38 26 42 49 43 45 49 46 50 51 44 53 54 52
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 52 55 57 52 17 56 58 46 55 51 39 53 54 37 67 51 50
High School Diploma 54 53 54 52 21 49 51 50 51 50 54 53 54 54 58 55 50
Some College, no Degree 52 52 53 49 25 49 54 48 55 50 55 51 53 51 57 58 49
College Degree/ Post-grad 53 50 54 48 25 48 55 50 52 49 50 51 50 46 59 56 48
Income 0-16 Percentile 56 55 56 48 16 49 54 47 48 49 52 49 ** 48 62 54 50
Income 17-33 Percentile 50 49 56 54 23 52 55 49 53 52 57 53 ** 53 61 55 50
Income 34-67 Percentile 53 53 56 53 22 48 53 51 54 49 53 50 ** 52 56 58 51
Income 68-95 Percentile 53 54 52 48 25 48 52 50 51 52 53 55 ** 49 56 56 48
Income 96-100 Percentile 49 49 46 43 23 53 53 46 55 51 51 55 ** 50 59 56 38
Professionals 52 50 52 48 24 48 54 50 52 50 54 51 ** 47 ** ** **
White Collar 51 54 51 50 23 50 53 49 50 47 54 53 ** 53 ** ** **
Blue Collar 54 54 57 52 22 49 53 50 53 50 54 52 ** 53 ** ** **
Unskilled 61 54 51 48 25 51 66 46 55 47 50 47 ** 53 ** ** **
Farmers 54 33 48 48 31 44 46 53 45 47 100 53 ** 44 ** ** **
Housewives 54 56 58 55 18 52 51 50 57 53 49 56 ** 52 ** ** **
Union Households 54 54 55 50 23 51 51 50 53 52 52 52 54 52 56 55 51
Non-Union Households 53 52 54 50 22 49 53 49 52 49 53 52 52 50 59 56 49
South 53 53 53 49 14 46 53 49 52 50 55 51 54 51 60 59 45
Nonsouth 53 52 54 51 27 50 53 50 52 50 52 53 52 51 57 55 50
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 51 49
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 50 52 52 51 51 57 51 56 54 48
Born 1959-1974 50 49 55 51 19 46 54 50 52 50 52 52 51 51 60 56 48
Born 1943-1958 54 52 52 50 23 48 53 48 51 49 51 53 53 48 58 57 50
Born 1927-1942 52 53 55 49 24 50 50 49 53 50 52 51 51 54 57 61 55
Born 1911-1926 53 51 55 51 24 52 54 54 55 50 65 57 49 48 61 51 40
Born 1895-1910 53 58 58 52 21 55 69 49 45 42 85 ** 57 ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 58 50 ** ** 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) 52 52 57 49 22 47 53 48 52 51 56 53 52 49 64 56 51
Independents 54 54 53 50 13 52 49 52 46 51 48 52 47 49 54 47 44
Republicans 53 52 49 52 26 50 54 52 54 48 50 51 53 52 49 59 48
Liberals 50 52 56 47 23 50 54 45 50 50 59 54 52 46 65 54 51
Moderates 54 53 52 50 24 50 52 49 54 51 48 52 52 53 58 55 50
Conservatives 54 52 52 53 25 49 53 52 52 49 53 47 55 51 50 58 48