The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Average Feelings Toward Congressional Candidates 1978-2000

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "Net Pro Dem.-Pro Rep."

  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00
Males 0 -0.1 -0.1 0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0 -0.3 -0.4 0.2 0
Females -0.1 -0.1 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.3 -0.1 0 0.1 0.1
White non-Hispanic -0.1 -0.1 0.1 0 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 -0.3 -0.3 0 0
Black non-Hispanic 0.8 0.2 1.5 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.7
Hispanic 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 -0.1 0.4 0.9 -0.2
Race oth/mult non-Hisp -0.7 -1.5 -1 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.1 1 -0.5 -0.9 0.1 0.3
8th Grade or Lower 0.1 0.8 1.1 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.2 0.4 0.4 1.1
High School (Grades 9-12) -0.1 -0.2 0.3 0 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 -0.2 0.1 0 0.2
Some College, no Degree 0 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0 -0.3 0.1 0 -0.5 -0.3 0.2 -0.1
College Degree/ Post-grad -0.2 0.2 -0.1 0.2 0.4 0 0.4 0.2 0.1 -0.5 0.3 0.1
Income 0-16 Percentile 0 -0.2 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.3 0 0 0.1
Income 17-33 Percentile 0 0 0.4 0 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.1 0
Income 34-67 Percentile 0 -0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 -0.2 0 0.4 0.2
Income 68-95 Percentile -0.1 -0.2 0 0.1 0.2 -0.1 0.3 0.1 -0.3 -0.6 0.1 0.2
Income 96-100 Percentile -0.2 0.3 -0.1 -0.6 0.2 -0.5 -0.2 -0.4 -0.3 -0.6 0.1 0
Professionals -0.1 0.1 -0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 -0.1 -0.4 0.6 0
White Collar -0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 -0.1 0.4 0.1 -0.2 -0.1 0.2 0.4
Blue Collar 0.1 0 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 -0.2 0.1 0 0
Unskilled 0.7 0.2 1 0.4 0.3 -0.5 0.7 0 0.1 0 0.9 0.2
Farmers -0.7 -1.1 -0.7 -0.3 -0.5 0.1 0.5 0.1 -0.1 -0.2 2 0.7
Housewives -0.2 -0.4 0.2 -0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0.2 -0.7 -0.6 -1 0.3
Union Households 0.2 0.1 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.1 0 0.4 0.7
Non-Union Households -0.1 -0.1 0.1 0 0.2 0 0.3 0.2 -0.2 -0.2 0.1 0
South 0.4 0 0.4 0.2 0.2 0 0.6 0.3 0.1 -0.1 0.3 -0.1
Nonsouth -0.1 -0.1 0.1 0 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.1 -0.3 -0.2 0.1 0.1
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** -0.1 -0.5 -0.1 0 0.1
Born 1959-1974 0 -0.3 0.3 0 0.2 0.3 0.2 -0.1 0 -0.1 0 0
Born 1943-1958 0.1 0 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.2 -0.3 -0.4 0.2 0.2
Born 1927-1942 -0.1 -0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.3 0.3 -0.1 -0.2 0.3 0
Born 1911-1926 -0.1 0.1 0 0 0.7 0.1 0.2 0.4 -0.4 0.2 0.7 0.2
Born 1895-1910 -0.4 -0.3 0.2 -0.2 -0.5 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.2 -3.4 2
Born before 1895 -0.8 0.3 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) 0.4 0.4 1.1 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.9
Independents -0.3 0 -0.1 0.1 0 0.4 0.2 0 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1 0
Republicans -0.6 -0.6 -1 -0.6 -0.5 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 -1 -1.2 -0.7 -0.9
Liberals 0.4 0.4 1.3 0.8 1 1 1.3 0.9 1.5 0.8 1.4 0.9
Moderates 0.1 -0.1 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.1 0 0.3 -0.1 0.3
Conservatives -0.6 -0.6 -0.9 -0.7 -0.4 -0.3 -0.4 -0.4 -0.9 -1.1 -0.4 -0.5