The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Average Feelings Toward Congressional Candidates 1978-2000

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "Incumbent Candidate"

  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00
Males 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8
Females 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
White non-Hispanic 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.8
Black non-Hispanic 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 1.1 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.5
Hispanic 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.9 1.1 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 0.8 0.7 1.3 1.3 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.5 1.1 0.7
8th Grade or Lower 0.9 1.1 1 1.1 1 0.8 0.8 1 0.8 0.7 0.9 1.2
High School (Grades 9-12) 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7
Some College, no Degree 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 1 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7
College Degree/ Post-grad 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.1 1 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8
Income 0-16 Percentile 0.8 0.9 1 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6
Income 17-33 Percentile 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 1 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.9
Income 34-67 Percentile 0.8 0.8 1 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
Income 68-95 Percentile 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7
Income 96-100 Percentile 1 1 0.9 1 1.3 1.2 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.2
Professionals 0.9 0.9 1 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.8
White Collar 0.9 0.7 1 0.7 0.7 1 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7
Blue Collar 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.9
Unskilled 0.3 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.9 0.4 0.9 1.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.9
Farmers 0.7 1.5 1.2 0.8 0.8 1 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.2 1.2 0.3
Housewives 1 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.3
Union Households 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.7 1 0.5 0.7 0.6
Non-Union Households 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.7
South 0.8 0.8 1 0.8 1 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.5
Nonsouth 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** -0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4
Born 1959-1974 0.8 0.1 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5
Born 1943-1958 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8
Born 1927-1942 0.8 0.9 1 0.9 0.8 0.9 1 0.8 0.7 0.8 1 1
Born 1911-1926 1.1 1.2 1.1 1 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 0.7 1.3
Born 1895-1910 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.2 1.1 -0.4 2.5
Born before 1895 1.3 1 2 2 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) 0.9 0.8 1 0.9 1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.7
Independents 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.5
Republicans 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.9
Liberals 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4
Moderates 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8
Conservatives 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7