The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Average Feelings Toward Congressional Candidates 1978-2000

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "Challenger Candidate"

  '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00
Males 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0 0 0.1 0 0.3 0.1
Females 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3
White non-Hispanic 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2
Black non-Hispanic 0 0.2 0.5 0 0 0 0.1 -0.1 0 0.2 0.4 0
Hispanic 0.1 0.3 0.1 -0.1 0 0.3 0.1 -0.2 0.2 0 0.6 0.3
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 0.3 0 1.5 -0.1 0.2 0 -0.1 0 0.1 0.1 -0.2 0.1
8th Grade or Lower 0.1 0 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.7 0.9 0
High School (Grades 9-12) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2
Some College, no Degree 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 -0.1 0.2 0 0.3 0.2
College Degree/ Post-grad 0 0.1 0.1 0 0.1 0.4 0.2 0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2
Income 0-16 Percentile 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.3 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.2 0
Income 17-33 Percentile -0.1 0 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 0 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2
Income 34-67 Percentile 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2
Income 68-95 Percentile 0 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2
Income 96-100 Percentile -0.1 0.1 -0.5 -0.4 0 0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.2 0 0.4 0
Professionals -0.1 -0.1 0.2 0 0 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.2
White Collar 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0 0.2 -0.1 0.4 0.1
Blue Collar 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0 -0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.1
Unskilled 0.4 0.4 -0.3 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 0 0.1 -0.3 -0.1 0.2
Farmers -0.2 -0.3 -0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0 0 -0.1 -0.3 0.4
Housewives 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.5 -0.1 0 0.1 0.3 -0.2 0.5
Union Households 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.4 0 0 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2
Non-Union Households 0 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2
South 0.1 0.1 0.2 0 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0.1 0.4 0.1
Nonsouth 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 0 0.1 0 0.1 0.3
Born 1959-1974 0 0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.1 0 0.1 0.1 0 0.1 0.2
Born 1943-1958 0 0.1 0.2 0 0.1 0.3 0 -0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1
Born 1927-1942 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.1
Born 1911-1926 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.4
Born 1895-1910 -0.1 0.4 0.9 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.3 1.3 0
Born before 1895 0 0.5 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) 0.1 0.2 0.4 0 0.2 0.1 0 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.3
Independents 0.1 0.2 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.4 0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0 0.1
Republicans 0 0.2 0 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 0.2 0
Liberals 0 0.1 0.2 -0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 -0.3 0 0.2 0.6 0.5
Moderates 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0
Conservatives 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2 0 0.3 0