The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

Party Identification 3-Point Scale 1952-2016

PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED : "Independent"

  '52 '54 '56 '58 '60 '62 '64 '66 '68 '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12 '16
Males 6 8 10 8 10 9 8 12 11 13 16 18 17 18 17 15 13 14 12 10 13 12 10 11 14 7 10 13 14 15
Females 4 7 9 7 10 7 8 12 11 13 14 18 15 15 14 12 12 13 12 13 12 11 10 12 13 7 10 10 14 14
White non-Hispanic 5 ** 9 8 9 8 8 12 11 13 15 18 17 17 15 13 11 14 12 12 12 12 10 13 14 8 9 11 13 14
Black non-Hispanic 3 ** 8 5 18 8 6 15 3 10 14 14 10 11 10 6 13 9 8 10 16 7 11 9 11 7 11 8 8 13
Hispanic ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 15 6 21 25 14 7 22 22 17 22 18 15 12 14 16 9 10 13 5 11 14 20 18
Race oth/mult non-Hisp ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 0 25 38 16 29 31 21 28 36 27 20 7 8 7 23 12 7 9 6 17 13 21 21
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 6 8 8 8 10 5 8 14 9 15 16 17 15 15 17 11 23 12 18 19 14 18 15 11 11 14 24 11 25 8
High School Diploma 5 7 11 8 11 10 8 14 12 14 16 19 18 20 19 15 14 18 15 14 15 15 13 16 17 9 13 15 18 20
Some College, no Degree 3 7 6 4 11 6 9 11 11 11 14 21 15 14 10 12 9 11 9 10 13 7 7 10 11 5 9 13 13 14
College Degree/ Post-grad 3 6 6 7 8 10 6 6 8 6 9 11 11 9 8 11 9 7 6 4 8 8 6 7 8 5 4 5 10 9
Income 0-16 Percentile 3 8 8 10 7 4 9 13 9 15 13 20 15 18 15 17 18 16 15 16 18 15 11 18 16 ** 17 17 19 23
Income 17-33 Percentile 6 11 9 9 11 5 9 17 14 14 17 20 12 17 12 10 13 13 11 14 14 10 9 10 14 ** 10 11 16 19
Income 34-67 Percentile 5 7 10 6 11 10 8 10 11 13 17 18 16 17 18 12 12 13 12 12 13 11 13 14 14 ** 8 12 13 13
Income 68-95 Percentile 5 7 10 7 11 8 6 12 11 11 11 16 18 14 11 12 9 12 9 8 9 9 7 10 10 ** 7 9 12 11
Income 96-100 Percentile 8 5 4 5 8 11 8 11 6 9 13 5 9 8 14 6 9 8 4 1 10 8 4 7 10 ** 4 5 5 9
Professionals 6 ** 8 9 11 ** 8 ** 12 10 11 13 14 12 11 12 9 10 9 8 9 9 8 9 10 ** 5 ** ** **
White Collar 6 ** 13 5 8 ** 6 ** 11 15 14 18 14 15 13 14 11 15 10 9 12 8 8 14 13 ** 10 ** ** **
Blue Collar 5 ** 10 7 12 ** 9 ** 10 14 17 18 18 20 18 15 15 15 15 14 15 13 12 14 15 ** 13 ** ** **
Unskilled 5 ** 5 4 8 ** 6 ** 4 0 18 16 18 29 23 11 14 11 19 14 18 23 21 8 25 ** 25 ** ** **
Farmers 5 ** 5 6 13 ** 6 ** 12 6 13 4 15 12 16 14 23 16 12 17 12 16 12 20 8 ** 12 ** ** **
Housewives 4 ** 10 9 8 ** 8 ** 10 13 16 22 16 14 17 10 12 15 13 14 11 15 14 13 11 ** 8 ** ** **
Union Households 4 6 10 6 11 ** 6 11 10 14 17 20 17 16 18 14 12 13 12 7 10 7 7 12 11 6 10 8 14 13
Non-Union Households 5 8 9 8 10 ** 8 13 11 13 14 17 16 16 14 13 13 14 12 13 13 12 10 12 14 8 10 12 14 15
South 1 ** 6 7 12 8 8 13 11 15 17 21 16 17 16 11 17 13 12 17 16 10 10 12 16 7 9 13 13 15
Nonsouth 6 ** 10 8 9 8 8 12 10 12 14 17 16 16 15 14 11 14 12 10 11 12 10 12 12 7 10 10 15 14
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 24 17
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 31 20 8 16 22 4 9 14 14 17
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 38 24 21 17 21 16 17 17 13 12 14 14 10 10 12 15 14
Born 1943-1958 ** ** ** ** ** ** 8 16 18 19 20 25 20 20 20 16 15 15 14 11 12 11 10 10 12 7 10 10 13 12
Born 1927-1942 6 10 10 10 12 9 9 13 10 13 16 17 17 13 11 11 8 11 8 11 11 7 7 9 10 4 10 8 10 11
Born 1911-1926 4 7 9 7 10 11 9 11 11 12 10 15 11 12 10 8 10 7 9 7 8 10 6 11 5 5 12 7 7 2
Born 1895-1910 5 8 10 8 9 5 7 13 10 11 12 11 11 12 10 9 11 9 12 5 9 19 3 7 19 60 ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 5 7 7 5 9 5 4 10 3 9 8 9 6 12 17 14 0 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Democrats (incl leaners) ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Independents ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Republicans ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Liberals ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 10 15 10 13 9 8 7 7 8 5 9 5 5 5 8 5 2 5 6 9
Moderates ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 13 17 19 17 14 11 14 15 14 10 15 12 12 15 14 7 11 20 25 20
Conservatives ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 11 15 9 11 10 9 7 10 7 7 8 8 5 5 8 3 5 6 7 6