The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

How to Use                                                                                            List of Tables



Aid to Blacks/Minorities 1970-2012
PERCENT AMONG DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS WHO RESPONDED :      'Help Themselves (5,6,7)'


  % OF GROUP: '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Males 45 39 42 41 46 45 41 36 43 48 49 51 54 59 43 51 ** 49 51 53
Females 37 36 33 32 40 40 37 30 39 41 39 41 47 48 37 49 ** 43 45 50
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Whites non-Hispanic 44 41 40 39 46 45 42 37 43 50 48 50 56 58 45 54 ** 52 54 59
Black non-Hispanic 6 8 8 11 16 20 15 14 26 23 24 29 24 32 19 29 ** 22 22 26
Hispanic 29 37 47 22 16 27 27 14 39 25 31 29 35 39 28 38 ** 39 31 36
Race oth/mult non-Hisp 63 38 14 20 42 41 36 41 38 20 53 56 64 55 53 54 ** 46 50 49
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Grade Sch./Some High Sch. 39 44 42 32 31 34 28 26 43 34 44 42 37 25 26 38 ** 45 35 32
High School Diploma 41 40 36 39 43 43 40 34 41 45 45 47 51 54 44 51 ** 47 48 49
Some College, no Degree 45 33 39 35 47 42 46 33 40 45 44 52 51 56 40 48 ** 48 49 54
College Degree/ Post-grad 36 29 31 32 45 44 32 32 38 44 38 39 49 53 36 51 ** 41 48 53
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Income 0-16 Percentile 28 36 23 22 28 28 33 21 35 35 34 36 38 36 40 42 ** 37 35 38
Income 17-33 Percentile 40 36 36 34 38 42 38 30 43 36 38 44 45 50 33 40 ** 45 40 43
Income 34-67 Percentile 42 40 36 37 45 41 37 37 42 46 45 45 53 57 41 51 ** 46 51 56
Income 68-95 Percentile 45 37 42 42 50 50 45 35 43 49 48 54 58 60 44 57 ** 50 58 60
Income 96-100 Percentile 37 38 65 44 54 60 47 41 45 54 56 48 48 56 43 52 ** 54 59 56
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Professionals 42 35 35 38 45 46 36 32 39 46 44 43 50 55 39 50 ** 44 ** **
White Collar 39 35 39 37 44 46 41 36 41 47 43 49 57 58 39 53 ** 47 ** **
Blue Collar 41 38 39 39 41 38 40 33 44 43 44 48 49 51 41 48 ** 48 ** **
Unskilled 46 17 35 26 39 26 26 40 35 31 45 44 47 41 39 61 ** 22 ** **
Farmers 34 49 56 37 37 46 30 30 39 46 50 46 51 52 67 49 ** 50 ** **
Housewives 41 42 34 34 43 40 42 29 36 40 42 39 47 49 48 50 ** 55 ** **
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Union Households 38 37 37 38 43 41 42 35 40 42 45 45 45 51 39 51 ** 41 48 47
Non-Union Households 41 38 37 36 42 42 38 32 41 44 43 46 52 53 40 49 ** 47 48 52
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
South 52 43 37 37 44 45 43 33 44 48 46 48 51 50 40 53 ** 43 52 53
Nonsouth 36 36 37 36 42 40 37 32 39 42 42 45 50 54 40 48 ** 47 44 51
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Born 1991 or later ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 41
Born 1975-1990 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 23 58 48 39 39 ** 37 41 47
Born 1959-1974 ** ** ** ** 34 33 41 33 36 45 41 46 49 55 40 51 ** 47 49 54
Born 1943-1958 35 30 28 30 41 41 40 34 41 46 43 46 51 55 41 53 ** 47 51 54
Born 1927-1942 42 38 38 38 49 45 42 35 42 45 49 45 49 50 38 54 ** 51 52 56
Born 1911-1926 41 42 43 42 43 45 34 30 40 38 43 45 50 51 42 43 ** 49 50 61
Born 1895-1910 42 43 42 39 37 36 36 27 49 43 53 50 40 44 14 29 ** ** ** **
Born before 1895 42 37 44 32 32 40 57 0 0 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Democrats (incl leaners) 36 34 33 32 38 35 32 24 34 34 37 37 38 42 29 38 ** 32 33 34
Independents 38 38 35 35 39 35 38 31 44 44 45 44 48 50 33 50 ** 43 49 49
Republicans (incl leaners) 48 44 46 43 52 55 52 44 48 55 53 58 65 67 58 67 ** 63 67 73
  '70 '72 '74 '76 '78 '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '08 '12
Liberals ** 17 25 25 37 31 29 23 31 32 33 30 28 37 24 35 ** 28 31 31
Moderates ** 40 34 36 45 45 35 37 41 43 45 45 50 52 40 56 ** 42 49 48
Conservatives ** 53 55 53 58 54 53 43 51 57 53 59 64 69 55 63 ** 61 66 71

    ___   (underline) indicates 50 or fewer total respondents within group
    **     indicates question not asked or no cases within group
          2008 NOTE: open-ended coding of occupation is not yet complete.
....................

Table 4B.4.2
Source: The American National Election Studies
Link to the ASCII text version of this table
NOTE: variable used for race grouping has changed. See Table 1A.3

(Table generated: 26OCT15)