The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

The Guide provides immediate access to tables and graphs that display the ebb and flow of public opinion, electoral behavior, and choice in American politics over time. It serves as a resource for political observers, policy makers, and journalists, teachers, students, and social scientists. The Guide are produced from data in the ANES Cumulative Data File.

How to Cite

The American National Election Studies ( THE ANES GUIDE TO PUBLIC OPINION AND ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR. These materials are based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant numbers SES 1444721, 2014-2017, the University of Michigan, and Stanford University. Any opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in these materials are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding organizations.


** A double asterisk indicates the question was not asked in that year’s study or that there are no respondents available in that year who answered the question.

– A dash indicates the particular response option was not available in that year.

__ An underline indicates that 50 or fewer total respondents for that subgroup answered the question.

Most of the time, the numbers in the display table are percentages — the percentage of respondents in each Election Study that had given each of the responses listed. When this is the case, Percentage Within Study Year appears under the table.

In some instances, the average response is displayed for each year, rather than percentages by response category. If averages rather than percentages are being displayed, AVERAGE WITHIN STUDY YEAR will appear under the table.