The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior

[August 16, 2021 version – Updated with the 2020 Time Series data]

The Guide provides immediate access to tables and graphs that display the ebb and flow of public opinion, electoral behavior, and choice in American politics over time. It serves as a resource for political observers, policy makers, and journalists, teachers, students, and social scientists.

Note: The Guide are produced from data in the ANES Cumulative Data File. The updated ANES Cumulative Data File including the 2020 Time Series study has not been released yet.

How to cite

American National Election Studies. THE ANES GUIDE TO PUBLIC OPINION AND ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR. August 16, 2021 version.


The ANES Guide to Public Opinion is based on the work of many ANES staff and investigators over many decades. This most recent update was supported by the National Science Foundation ( under grant number SES-1835721 to the University of Michigan and grant number SES-1835022 to Stanford University. Any opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in these materials are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.


** A double asterisk indicates the question was not asked in that year’s study or that there are no respondents available in that year who answered the question.

– A dash indicates the particular response option was not available in that year.

__ An underline indicates that 50 or fewer total respondents for that subgroup answered the question.

Most of the time, the numbers in the display table are percentages — the percentage of respondents in each Election Study that had given each of the responses listed. When this is the case, Percentage Within Study Year appears under the table.

In some instances, the average response is displayed for each year, rather than percentages by response category. If averages rather than percentages are being displayed, AVERAGE WITHIN STUDY YEAR will appear under the table.