Pilot Study Reports

ANES Pilot Studies are designed to test both new methods and new substantive instrumentation. The experiments provide suggestions for future improvements to the ANES time series studies. The Pilot Study Reports tend to focus more on substantive questions than on methodological issues.

Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in these materials are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of ANES or its funding organizations.

2006 Pilot Study Reports

Albarracin, Dolores and Wei Wang. 2007. Defensive Confidence: 2006 ANES Analysis Report. ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011885.

Ansolabehere, Stephen D., Mark Meredith, Erik Snowberg, and J. M. Snyder Jr. 2007. Sociotropic Voting and the Media: A Summary of Results From the 2006 ANES Pilot . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011888.

Althaus, Scott L. and David H. Tewksbury. 2007. Toward a New Generation of Media Use Measures for the ANES: Report to the BoardĀ  . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011903.

Berinsky, Adam J. and Howard Lavine. 2007. Self-Monitoring and Political Attitudes: 2006 NES Pilot Study Report . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011881.

Durante, Ruben and Louis Putterman. 2007. A Preliminary Analysis of the 2006 Pilot Study Responses to Questions on Progressivity of Taxes and Estate Tax . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011887.

Erisen, Elif and Cengiz Erisen. 2007. A Report on the Social Network Battery in the 2006 ANES Pilot Study . 2008; ANES Pilot Study Report No. nes012063.

Federico, Christopher M., John T. Jost, Antonio Pierro and Arie W. Kruglanski. 2007. The Need for Closure and Political Attitudes: Final Report for the ANES Pilot . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011904.

Gershtenson, Joseph and Dennis L. Plane. 2007. Trust in Government . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011890.

Hitlin, Steven and Katherine Kramer. 2007. Value-Dimensions in America . ANES Pilot Study Report, no. nes011893.

Lempert, Daniel. 2007. Belief in a Just World and Perceptions of Fair Treatment by Police . ANES Pilot Study Report No. nes012058.

Martinez, Michael D., Jason Gainous, and Stephen C. Craig. 2007. Measuring Ambivalence about Government in the 2006 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011905.

McConochie, William A. and Kristian Dunn. 2007. Ten Values for Predicting Political Voting and Behavior: ANES 2006 Pilot Study/2004 Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes012030.

Mockabee, Stephen T., Kenneth D. Wald, and David C. Leege. 2007. Reexamining Religiosity A Report on the New Religion Items in the ANES 2006 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011907.

Molden, Daniel C. 2007. Effects of Beliefs about the Stability or Malleability of Personality on Judgments of Political Candidates’ Character and Voting Behavior . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011906.

Parker, Wayne D. 2007. The Socionomic Perspective on Social Mood and Voting: Report on New Mood Measures in the 2006 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011884.

Rice, Heather; Zigerell, Jr. L. J., and Barker, David. 2007. ANES 2006 Pilot Report: Eschatology Items . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011919.

Sanbonmatsu, Kira and Kathleen Dolan. 2007. Gender Stereotypes and Gender Preferences on the 2006 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011883.

Schneider, Daniel. 2007. Measuring Perceived Effectiveness of Political Institutions: Report on the ANES Pilot Study 2006 . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011886.

Schwartz, Shalom H. 2007. Basic Personal Values: A Report to the National Election Studies Board . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011882.

Shani, Danielle. 2007. Analysis of Interest in Politics Items From the 2006 Pilot . ANES Pilot Study Report, no. nes011892.

Uslaner, Eric M. 2007. The Generalized Trust Questions in the 2006 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011889.

Zigerell, L.J., Jr., David Barker and Heather Rice. 2007. ANES Pilot Study Report: Abortion Items . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes011891.

2000 Pilot Study Reports

Burns, Nancy, and Donald R. Kinder. 2000. Social Trust and Democratic Politics . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010112.

Rahn, Wendy, and Thomas J. Rudolph. 2000. Report on the ANES 2000 Pilot Election ItemsĀ . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010113.

1998 Pilot Study Reports

Bizer, George Y., Jon A. Krosnick, Richard E. Petty, Derek D. Rucker, and S. Christian Wheeler. 2000. Need for Cognition and Need to Evaluate in the 1998 National Election Survey Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008997.

Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., Gary C. Jacobson, and J. Tobin Grant. 2000. Question Wording and the House Vote Choice: Some Experimental Evidence . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010111.

Goldstein, Ken, and Paul Freedman. 2000. 1998 Pilot Study Report: Television Exposure InstrumentationĀ . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010114.

Holbrook, Allyson L., Jon A. Krosnick, Penny S. Visser, Wendi L. Gardner, and John T. Cacioppo. 1999. The Formation of Attitudes toward Presidential Candidates and Political Parties An Asymmetric Nonlinear Process . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010878.

Huckfeldt, R. Robert, and Ronald Lake. 2000. A Report on the Social Network Battery in the 1998 American National Election Study Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010110.

Huckfeldt, Robert. 2000. Addendum to the Huckfeldt/Lake 1998 Pilot Study Report on the Social Network Battery . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010877.

Hutchings, Vincent L, and Nicholas A. Valentino. 2000. ANES Pilot Report: The Impact of Group Attitudes on Vote Choice in Gubernatorial Contests . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010115.

Mondak, Jeffrey J., and Belinda Creel Davis. 2000. Asked and Answered: Knowledge Levels When We Won’t Take “Don’t Know” for an Answer . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010118.

Mutz, Diana C., and Virginia Sapiro. 2000. Political Participation: A 1998 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010116.

Rahn, Wendy, and Thomas J. Rudolph. 2000. Public Mood in the 1998 Elections: A View from the 1998 ANES Pilot . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010117.

1997 Pilot Study Reports

Bowers, Jake. 1998. Black Threat and Christian Fundamentalist Threat: A National Election Study 1997 Pilot Study Report . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008497.

Burden, Barry C., and Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier. 1998. Vote Likelihood and Institutional Trait Questions in the 1997 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008507.

Carman, Christopher, and Christopher Wlezien. 1998. Ideological Evaluations of Government Institutions and Policy . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008517.

Freedman, Paul, and Kenneth M. Goldstein. 1998. Partial Birth Abortion Item, 1997 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008547.

Rahn, Wendy W., and Christina Wessel. 1998. Perceptions of the Partisan Homogeneity of Social Groups: A Report to the ANES Board of Overseers . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008527. Report to the ANES Board.

Sapiro, Virginia. 1998. . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008557.

Sapiro, Virginia. 1998. Pro-Life People or Opponents of Abortion? Pro-Choice People or Suporters of Abortion? A Report on the ANES 1997 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008537.

Wald, Kenneth D., James L. Guth, Ted G. Jelen, Lyman A. Kellstedt, Corwin Smidt, and Clyde Wilcox. 1998. Evaluation of the New Religious Items on the ANES 1997 Pilot Study: A Report to the ANES Board . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008567.

Wlezien, Christopher. 1998. Liberal-Conservative Evaluations of Groups, ANES Pilot Study Report . No. nes008577.

Wong, Cara. 1998. Group Closeness: 1997 National Election Study Pilot Report . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008587.

1995 Pilot Study Reports

Alvarez, R. Michael. 1996. Survey Measures of Uncertainty: A Report to the National Election Studies Board on the Use of “Certainty” Questions to Measure Uncertainty About Candidate Traits and Issue Positions . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002345.

Bartels, Larry M. 1996. Budget Items on 1995 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008357.

Bartels, Larry M. 1996. Entertainment Television Items on 1995 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008367.

Bartels, Larry M. 1996. Humanitarianism Items on 1995 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008377.

Bartels, Larry M. 1996. Issue Scales Versus Effort Items on the 1995 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008387.

Bartels, Larry M. 1996. Talk Radio Items on 1995 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008397.

Bartels, Larry M. 1996. Television News Items on 1995 Pilot Study </a.. ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008407.

Berinsky, Adam J., and Steven J. Rosenstone. 1996. Evaluation of Environmental Policy Items on the 1995 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008417.

Buhr, Tami, Ann Crigler, and Marion R. Just. 1996. Media Questions on the 1996 Election Study and Related Content Analysis of Media Cover of the Presidential Campaign . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008427.

Hansen, John Mark. 1996. Revealed Preference Budget Items on the 1995 National Election Pilot Study: A Report . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008437.

Marcus, George E., and Michael MacKuen. 1996. Measuring Mood in the 1995 National Election Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008447.

Rabinowitz, George. 1996. New Issues on the 95 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008457.

Rahn, Wendy W., and John Transue. 1996. The Political Significance of Fear of Crime . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008467.

Richardson, Amy. 1996. Questions on Public Attitudes Toward the Environment . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008477.

Steenbergen, Marco R. 1996. Compassion and American Public Opinion: An Analysis of the ANES Humanitarianism Scale . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008177.

Zaller, John. 1996. Analysis of News Exposure Items from the 1995 Pilot. ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008487.

1993 Pilot Study Reports

Dennis, Jack. 1994. The Perot Consitituency: A Report to the Board of the National Election Studies . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002299.

Franklin, Charles H. 1994. A Report on the 1993 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002300.

Jacobson, Gary C., and Douglas Rivers. 1994. Overreport of Vote for House Incumbents in ANES Surveys . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002301.

Stoker, Laura. 1994. New Items on the 1993 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010875.

Stoker, Laura. 1994. A Reconsideration of Self-Interest in American Public Opinion . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010876.

Strand, Douglas Alan. 1994. Homosexuality, Gay Rights, and the Clinton Coalition: Report to the National Election Studies on Results from the 1993 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008207.

Zaller, John. 1994. Securing the District . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008227.

1991 Pilot Study Reports

Beebe, Timothy. 1992. The Effects of Pre-Notification and Incentive on Panel Attrition . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002285.

Brady, Henry E. 1992. Report on Feeling Thermometer for ‘Moderates’ . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002287.

Citrin, Jack, Donald P. Green, Beth Reingold, and David O. Sears. 1992. A Report on Measures of American Identity and New ‘Ethnic’ Issues in the 1991 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002288.

Conover, Pamela Johnston, and Virginia Sapiro. 1992. Gender Consciousness and Gender Politics in the 1991 Pilot Study: A Report to the ANES Board . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008197.

Delli Carpini, Michael X., and Scott Keeter. 1992. An Analysis of Information Items on the 1990 and 1991 ANES Surveys: A Report to the Board for the National Election Studies . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002290.

Highton, Benjamin, and Raymond E. Wolfinger. 1992. Estimating the Size of Minority Groups . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002291.

Huddy, Leonie. 1992. Analysis of Old-Age Policy Items in the 1991 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002292.

Knack, Stephen. 1992. Deterring Voter Registration Through Juror Source Practices: Evidence from the 1991 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002296.

Knack, Stephen. 1992. Performance and Recommendations Summary for 1991 ANES Pilot Variables #2828-2847 . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002295.

Knack, Stephen. 1992. Social Altruism and Voter Turnout: Evidence from the 1991 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002294.

Knack, Stephen. 1992. Social Connectedness and Voter Participation: Evidence from the 1991 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002293.

Oliver, Eric, and Raymond E. Wolfinger. 1992. Jury Duty as a Deterrent to Voter Registration . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002297.

Zaller, John. 1992. Report on 1991 Pilot Items on Environment . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002298.

1989 Pilot Study Reports

Abelson, Robert P. 1990. Results of Vote Validation Experiment . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002276.

Calvo, Maria Antonia, and Steven J. Rosenstone. 1990. The Re-Framing of the Abortion Debate . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002277.

Kinder, Donald R., and Thomas E. Nelson. 1990. Experimental Investigations of Opinion Frames and Survey Responses: A Report to the ANES Board . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002278.

Knight, Kathleen. 1990. Comparisons of Liberal-Conservative Items in the ANES 1989 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002279.

Krosnick, Jon A., and Matthew K. Berent. 1990. Impact of Verbal Labeling of Response Alternatives and Branching on Attitude Measurement Reliability . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002280.

Leege, David C., Kenneth D. Wald, and Lyman A. Kellstedt. 1990. Religion and Politics: A Report on Measures of Religiosity in the 1989 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002281.

Markus, Gregory B. 1990. Measuring Popular Individualism . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002282.

Price, Vincent, and John Zaller. 1990. Evaluation of Media Exposure Items in 1989 . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002283.

Rosenstone, Steven J., and Gregory A. Diamond. 1990. Measuring Public Opinion on Political Issues . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes008187.

Traugott, Michael W. 1990. Memo to Pilot Study Committee: Understanding Campaign Effects on Candidate Recall and Recognition . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002284.

Zaller, John. 1990. Experimental Tests of the Question Answering Model of the Mass Survey Response . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002286.

1987 Pilot Study Reports

Abelson, Robert P. 1996. Results of Experiment on Improving the Accuracy of Self-Reported Turnout . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002262.

Conover, Pamela Johnston, and Stanley Feldman. 1987. Measuring Patriotism and Nationalism . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002263.

Conover, Pamela Johnston, and David Lowery. 1988. Pilot Study Questions on Welfare/Poverty . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002264.

Craig, Stephenm C., and Richard G. Niemi. 1987. Political Efficacy and Trust . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002265.

Feldman, Stanley. 1987. Evaluation of New Equality Items . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002266.

Knight, Kathleen. 1987. Measurement of Liberal/Conservative Identification . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002267.

Niemi, Richard G., Charles Hadley, and Harold W. Stanley. 1987. National and State Party Identification . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002268.

Niemi, Richard G., and Herbert F. Weisberg. 1987. ‘Force Choice’ Party Identification Question Experiment . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002269.

Peffley, Mark, and Jon Hurwitz. 1987. Report on Foreign Policy Items . 1987 Pilot Study, ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002270.

Shingles, Richard D. 1987. New Measures of Subjective Political Efficacy and Political Trust . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002272.

Stoker, Laura. 1987. Morality and Politics: Conduct and Control. A Report on New Items in the 1987 National Election Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002273.

Tate, Katherine. 1987. Whites’ Perceptions of Group Economic Differences . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002274.

Zaller, John, and Stanley Feldman. 1987. Frame of Reference and the Survey Response. . ANES Pilot Study Report No. nes002275.

1985 Pilot Study Reports

Conover, Pamela Johnston, and Stanley Feldman. 1986. 1985 Pilot Study Measures on Civic Obligation . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002252.

Conover, Pamela Johnston, and Stanley Feldman. 1986. Morality Items on the 1985 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002251.

Iyengar, Shanto. 1986. Whither Political Information . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002253.

Jacobson, Gary C. 1986. New Congressional Questions from 1985 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002254.

Jessor, Tom, and David O. Sears. 1986. Racial Conflict in the 1985 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002255.

Kinder, Donald R., and Lynn M. Sanders. 1986. Revitalizing the Measurement of White American’s Racial Attitudes: A Report to the ANES 1985 Pilot Study Committee and ANES Board . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002256.

Sears, David O., and Leonie Huddy. 1986. Interest Group Behavior Among Older People . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002257.

Sears, David O., and Leonie Huddy. 1986. Social Identities and Political Disunity Among Women . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002258.

Walker, Jack L. 1986. Subjective Measures of Group Affiliation . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002260.

Walker, Jack L., and Frank K. Baumgartner. 1986. A New Question on Group Affiliations in the 1986 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002259.

Zaller, John. 1986. Analysis of Information Items in the 1985 ANES Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002261.

1983 Pilot Study Reports

Feldman, Stanley. 1983. Report on Values in the 1983 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002242.

Hansen, John Mark, and Steven J. Rosenstone. 1983. Participation Outside Elections . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002243.

Kinder, Donald R. 1983. Presidential Traits . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002244.

Kinder, Donald R., Steven J. Rosenstone, and John Mark Hansen. 1983. Group Economic Well-Being and Political Choice . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002245.

Klein, Ethel. 1983. Monitoring Group Interest . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002246.

Krosnick, Jon A. 1983. ANES Pilot Study of Issue Position Centrality Measures . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002247.

Rosenstone, Steven J., John Mark Hansen, and Donald R. Kinder. 1983. Measuring Personal Economic Well-Being . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002248.

Sears, David O., Leonie Huddy, and Lynitta Schaffer. 1983. ANES Pilot Study of Values . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002249.

Sears, David O., Tom Jessor, and Martin Gahart. 1983. Group Consciousness in the 1983 Center for Political Studies National Election Studies Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002250.

1979 Pilot Study Reports

Aldrich, John H., Richard G. Niemi, and David Rohde. 1979. Issues . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002230.

Brody, Richard A. 1979. Measures of Party Identification in the 1979 Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002231.

Dennis, Jack. 1979. An Analysis of Some Measures of Partisanship Using the Pilot Study Data . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002232.

Erbring, Lutz, and Peter Clarke. 1979. ANES ’80 Media Segment . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002233.

Erbring, Lutz, and Arthur H. Miller. 1980. Media Monitoring and Political Cognitions: A Feasibility Study Report . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002234.

Eulau, Heinz, Jonathan W. Siegel, and M. Stephen Weatherford. 1979. A Technical Report on Interpersonal Context of Political Behavior . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002235.

Jackson, John E. 1980. Analysis of Pilot Study Issue Questions . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002236.

Kinder, Donald R. 1983. Presidential Traits . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002244.

Kinder, Donald R., Robert P. Abelson, and Susan T. Fiske. 1979. Developmental Research on Candidate Instrumentation: Results and Recommendations . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002237.

Niemi, Richard G., Richard S. Katz, and David Newman. 1979. Reconstructing Past Partisanship: The Failure of the Party Identification Recall Questions . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002238.

Sears, David O., and Richard R. Lau. 1979. Personal Impact, Governmental Performance, and Policy Attitudes: A Preliminary Analysis of the 1979 CPS Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002239.

Weisberg, Herbert F., and Tom Boyd. 1979. Report on Party Identification Questions in Pilot Study . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002240.

Weisberg, Herbert F., and Arthur H. Miller. 1979. Evaluation of the Feeling Thermometer: A Report to the ANES Board Based on Data from the 1979 Pilot Study Survey . ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes002241.